History of Near East Ancient Civilization Total Lecture Notes.docx

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Ancient Near East

Nr East 112 Lecture NotesIron age 1200alexander 332 BCE Ancient Israel Look closely at Hebrew bible as main source What is the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament The Bible of the jews Devided into three main sections stndrd1 Torah pentetuk 2 The prophets 3 the writingsWe will look closely at torah and prophets These books give a good account of the origins of Israel and Judah How do we relate what is found in the bible with the findings of archeologists Often historians of the ancient near east will spend an entire class on the literature of Mesopotamian literature but then when they get to the bible they say this is ideological and religious one shouldnt trust it as a sourceThe Hebrew bible is a tricky subject for our class because it is sacred to jews and Christians But what were interested in for this class is to try to place this literature within the context of the iron age studying the origins of the biblical literature asking questions the religious communities do not ask who wrote it when was it writtenDiscussion tomorrow use of the bible as a historical source GenesisDavidSolomon Two readings CW for ThursdayThe origins and affinities of ancient Israel Be prepared to discuss in classLecture 114 Nr EastNest Tuesday read 2 articles on CW The question of distinctiveness And one other And bibleoremusorg psalm 74 genesis 1 1 kings 18 isiah 51Better yet print them and bring them to class The rise of ancient Israel and the territorial polities of the early iron age Levant ChronologyIron Age 1200332 AlexanderIron Age I early iron age 12001000Iron Age II 1000539 AssyrianBabylonian PeriodIron Age III 539332 Persian EmpireEarly Iron Age Problems with studying this period its essentially a dark age which is to say we have a lack of historical sources and records from this period Why not Because Egypt and Mesopotamia were in a weakened state and less in a position to make records and inscriptions What sources can be used instead Some try to use the bible although our earliest copies of the bibles date to 200300 BCE years after the events and lives we are trying to describe Most scholars marginalize the bible because they are afraid of accidentally seeming to prove religious claims trueScholars also turn to archeology for informationTransition from Late Bronze Age to early Iron Territorial regionalization Around 1200 BCE all of the major city states of the levant collapse Why Maybe due to sea peoples or some other invaders Then What happens is the emergence of small territorial states Levant divides itself into Phoenicia Israel Judah and Philistia Demographics of the region shift toward regional powers competing for power Each of the above small states also have their own religion Each one has their own chief diety although they are monotheistic Phonecia Baal AstarteIsrael BaalYaweh and Astarte Israel is between Judah and PhoeniciaJudah Yaweh and AsherahPhilistia Dagon assoc with cornTorah gives us a prehistory of the people of Israel The torah describes the ancestors of the people who become the Israelites Abraham Isaac and Jacob The larger purpose of this book is to suggest that the god Yaweh has promised the land of Canaan to Abrahams descendents2nd major section of the Hebrew Bible Prophets slightly misleading name Former Prophets and Latter Prophets Former Prophets is primarily narrativeand it describes the settlement of canaan and then how Israel is exiled from Canaan Joshua
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