APPLING 101W Study Guide - Summer 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Amplitude Modulation, Grammar, Vocab (Song)

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Language learning in early childhood
How they develop different parts of the language system
-
How children acquire their first language?
How is language learning accomplished? In terms of words and sentences and complex structure?
What theories of language learning are there?
How does bilingual children acquire language?
Basics:
all normal developing children acquire their native language in the first few years of life
Deaf children of hearing parents also acquire complex primary communication systems
Many children worldwide acquire more than one language early in childhood. Monolingualism accounts for small %
of the total
Birth to approximately 6 months
a.
Baby makes noise, and mother will come to help/accommodate the child
Baby realize by making noise/sounds, she would get care ==> sound can be used as a way to
communicated
This stages suggests awareness of sounds and their potential as communicative signs
b.
Cooing
1.
La, da,ma
i.
More language-like sequences: syllables of CV structure(e.g. Constant vow)
a.
Interactive use of prosodic features (stress, intonation, pitch
b.
Maybe combined with gestures (pointing, stretched out arms, eye contacts etc.) in attempts to
communicate meaning
c.
Decrease in babbling and increase in the use of worlds for reference to objects in the world from 6 to
11-16 months
d.
Language is also what we do from body language, not just words we say
e.
Babbling
2.
Fulfil referential, grammatical, and social functions
a.
E.g. Thank you or all gone
i.
Include individual words and formulas
b.
Meanings often overextended: doggies for dogs, horses, raccoons
c.
Rapid, huge development
i.
Given and take
ii.
Fast increase in vocab from less than 50 words at 18 months to 1000 at 36 months
d.
Start from one-word
e.
Two-word stage 21 months
f.
Telegraphic speech 25 months
g.
Words
3.
Emerges by 24 months
a.
Spontaneous combination of words into 2-word phrases
b.
Words that are only essential
i.
Only content words are used, specifically, nouns and verbs "mommy sock" "baby juice" "play doll"
c.
Synaptic development is virtually complete by age 4
i.
Gradual increase in complexity of utterances; telegraphic speech : tony play truck, no want juice,
d.
Syntax
4.
Developmental sequences
a.
The smallest unit that has meaning or grammatical function
i.
Order of morpheme acquisition
b.
Morphology
5.
Stages of FLA
Wk1 lesson 1 Mon.
Monday, August 5, 2019
10:18 AM
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The smallest unit that has meaning or grammatical function
i.
"s" "ed" grammatical function, cannot stand alone but has meaning showing plural/past
ii.
Cats, cat(is a morpheme)
iii.
Ing, ed,
iv.
Negation
c.
Question formation
d.
Past tense, plural/singular endings
e.
Brown's order of morpheme acquisition ==> developmental sequences
Present progressive-ing
1.
At the age of 10 months-1 year
i.
Plural -s
2.
Went, said, ate
i.
Occur before the regular
ii.
One morpheme, they pick up words that's a whole, not a word composed of two parts
iii.
Irregular past tense :
3.
Possessive- 's
4.
Is, am , are
1)
Non-contractible copula
5.
Articles "a" and "the"
6.
Regular past tense-ed
7.
Auxiliary "be": e.g. he is coming
i.
Their person singular present - s
8.
Order of acquisition negation
No.no cookie. No comb hair
i.
Stage 1: those terrible two's : no
1.
Daddy no comb hair. Don’t touch that
i.
Negative word before verb
2.
I can't do it/ he don’t want
i.
More complex sentences, variations of no, and addition to modals and auxiliaries
3.
He doesn’t (vs. he don’t)
i.
Negation match subject
4.
Questions
Mommy cookie?
i.
One or two word phrases with rising intonation
1.
Statements
i.
I like eggs
ii.
A development/further of stage 1
iii.
Declarative sentence word order with rising intonation
2.
Can I go vs. I can go
i.
Do I can go..?
ii.
Question inversion structure, but some "fronting"
3.
Do dogs like ice cream?
i.
Subject and auxiliary inversion
4.
Wh- and yes/no questions formed correctly, but negatives may pose problems
5.
Negative questions are done correctly
6.
The first 3 years: milestones
Can babies learn from computers or the TV?
-
Think about age
-
What is auditory discrimination?
The linguistic genius of babies|patricia Kuhl
-
Critical period for language learning: 3-7
-
Citizens of word-> culture-bond learners
-
6-8months
Critical period for sound: ability decreases after 1 year
-
Human being has to present for babies to take statistics, and thus learn language
-
What does this evidence suggest about the following questions
Derogative
Do you like
Imperative
orders
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