Study Guide for BIO 309 Midterm II.doc

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University of California - Los Angeles
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Mohit Shaikh

Study Guide for BIO 309 Midterm II Know the following: 1. Material content in the Study Guide for BIO 309 Midterm I 2. Chemosensory systems a. Viscerosensory systems i. Nucleus of the solitary tract b. Gustatory System – know the taste transduction pathways i. Salty taste ii. Sour taste iii. Sweet taste iv. Bitter taste v. Umami (savory) taste c. Gustatory pathways i. Facial nerve (VII) – taste in anterior 2/3 of the tongue ii. Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) – taste in posterior 1/3 of the tongue iii. Vagus nerve (CN X) – taste in epiglottis area iv. Gustatory (solitary) nucleus v. Ventroposteromedial thalamus (VPM) vi. Gustatory cortex of the Insula, buried deep inside of the Transverse fissure d. Olfactory system i. Olfactory epithelium ii. Olfactory neurons iii. Olfactory transduction iv. Cribriform plate v. Olfactory bulb vi. Olfactory glomeruli vii. Mitral cells viii. Olfactory pathways e. Accessory olfactory (vomeronasal) system i. Jacobson’s (vomeronasal) organ ii. Detection of pheromones 3. Photosensory systems a. Eye anatomy i. Cornea ii. Aqueous humor (anterior chamber) iii. Iris and pupil under autonomic control 1. Parasympathetic neurons of the ciliary ganglion control constriction 2. Sympathetic nervous system controls papillary dilation iv. Lens v. Vitreous humor vi. Retina vii. Pigment epithelium viii. Tapetum lucidum (in nocturnal species. b. Retinal layers and cell types i. Outer nuclear layer (photoreceptors: rods and cones) ii. Outer plexiform layer (synapses of rods/cones with bipolar & horizontal cells) iii. Inner nuclear layer (bipolar, horizontal & amacrine cells) iv. Inner plexiform layer (synapses of bipolar cells with amacrine and retinal ganglion cells) v. Ganglion cell layer vi. Optic fiber layer c. Photoreceptors i. Rods ii. Cones (red, green, blue) d. Phototransduction process e. Visual pathways i. Optic nerve ii. Optic chiasm iii
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