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[EPS SCI 15] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (101 pages long!)


Department
Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences
Course Code
EPS SCI 15
Professor
Tripati, A.K.
Study Guide
Final

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UCLA
EPS SCI 15
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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81
The Physical and Chemical Properties of Seawater
contains:
- dissolved organic salts (3.5%)
- dissolved gasses
- traces of dissolved organic molecules
is a:
- basic environment for marine organisms
- unique: exists in 3 stages (due to temp. and pressure)
the abundance of dissolved nutrients:
- provides fundamental control on biological productivity
- source: river waters, gases from volcanic eruptions, and fluids from hydrothermal
vents at the Ridge and Rise System.
- Many dissolved elements eventually get incorporated into deep-sea sediments as a
result of biological or inorganic processes. Some dissolved salts get removed from
seawater by fluids that circulate into ocean ridges.
its dipolar structure & hydrogen bonds results in:
- high melting (0 C) and boiling (100 C) for such a light compound
- high latent heat of melting and vaporization
- high heat capacity (amount of energy it can store)
= why oceans have a major moderating effect on climate
temperature is:
- measure of the amount of heat stored in oceans
*higher temperature = lower density
*gases from the atmosphere (i.e. nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide) are most solu-
ble in cold water
*higher ion concentration = higher electrical conductivity (used in modern salinome-
ters)
*increased salt water = increased density = lower freezing point
*high density = low temp = high salinity (coldest water = most dense)
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82
salinity:
- 1 kg of seawater contains 34.7 g of dissolved salts (salinity = 3.47%)
- varies due to evaporation or precipitation of water
- can be determined with the use of most abundant salt: chloride (Cl-)
- Salinity (‰) = 1.80555 x Chlorinity (‰)
- increases when pure water is removed by evaporation or formation of ice
- decreases when water is added by precipitation (rain) or melting of ice
inorganic components:
- chloride (Cl– ), sodium (Na+ ), sulfate (SO 42 – ), magnesium (Mg2 + ), calcium (Ca2
+ ), and potassium (K+ )
oceans are well mixed because:
- majors ions are remarkably constant
- Principle of Constant Proportions
Measurements:
- measuring the abundance of one ion, we can calculate the total abundance of dis-
solved salts based on the assumption of constant proportions
- conductivity of water is a function of the number of ions present
density:
- controls deep-ocean circulation (dense seawater formed at the surface will sink to
great depths, driving the internal circulation of the oceans)
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