[ETHNOMUS 50B] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (12 pages long!)

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ETHNOMUS 50B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Ethnomusicology Textbook notes: CH 6&7
Chapter 6: Bebop and Modern Jazz
-War years influenced the course of jazz: musicians were being
drafted, gas was rationed (incr difficulty/expense of touring)
-Frank Sinatra helped shift tastes from swing to romantic ballads
(jazzy tune)
-Louis Jordan (Alto-sax): helped shift towards a blues-based dance-y
vibe (jump blues evolved to rock and roll)
-Big Band era: commercial success experienced mainly by the whites,
but the music form dx by blacks. Black musicians (WW2 veterans)
hoped for increased opportunities but were disappointed
Therefore, they created a new type of jazz: more complex
and irregularly accented melodies, sophisticated harmonic
modulations and faster temps AKA bebop
Critics: generational problems, traditionalistic side despised the
tapping of the foot, jazz musicians of earlier styles said it was hectic,
frantic and “phenomenal cruelty”
Defenders: Barry Ulanov stated that they were improving the art of
jazz by adding rhythmic and tonal resources
Contrafacts: new melodies written to harmonic structures (chord
changes) of preexisting songs
Big Bands:
Earl Hines Orchestra of 1943: Dizzy, Parker, Sarah Vaughan, Eckstine,
Fats Navarro, Gene Ammons, Dexter Gordon, Art Blakey (but by
recording, Parker and Dizzy had moved on)
Saxophonists
Alto: Charlie Parker aka Yardbird aka Bird (b 1920 Kansas City 1955)
Demonstrate talents in jam sessions then nightclub
engagements
Music had a searing emotional quality that provided a fitting
soundtrack to the drug and alcohol abuse, erratic bx and
hospitalizations
Working life involved leading a combo (quintet of trumpet,
piano, bass, drums and his alto)
o Best known group: Miles Davis (trumpet), Duke Jordan
(piano), Tommy Potter (bass), Max Roach (drums)
Pianists
Bud Powell: speed and complexity praised on piano, psychiatric
problems led to shock therapy and effected the way he played
afterwards
Thelonious Monk: passing dissonances of bold creations, leading
eccentric
Lennie Tristano: personal philosophy of improvisation and attracted
students. Systematic methods and dispassionate approach(reinforced
by his white ethnicity) he was more “progressive” alternative to be bop
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Ethnomusicology Textbook notes: CH 6&7
COOL JAZZ “West Coast” Jazz
-marketable commodity, lighter, vibrato-free lines, use of flute, French
horn and tuba, greater emphasis on counterpoint and classical
techniques
Dave Brubeck:
Modern Jazz Quartet: John Lewis (p), Milt Jackson (v), Connie Kay
(dr), Percy Heath (b).)
Third Stream: attempt to wed classical technique and instrumentation
to jazz sensibility
Chet Baker: trumpet: self taught newcomer who was impressive and
improvised with mulligan
CHAPTER 6
1. What musical movements began to replace big band jazz during the
years following WW2?
Several musical movements emerged to supplant the big bands as the
leading forms of popular music. Vocalists broke away from big bands
to enjoy success on their own, singing popular ballands and songs.
Blues-based, dance-y music dx (jump blues later dx to rock n roll)
Louis Jordan (sax/vocalist) pronounced backbeat and new sound of the
guitar. Bebop was the new style that would change jazz
2. What is bebop and what roles did Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie
play in creating/popularizing it?
Bebop was dx following the decline of the big band swing music. Most
of them were African American improvisers favoring complex and
irregularly accented melodies, more sophisticated harmonies, and
faster tempos. Write and improvise new melodies to preexisting songs
and substitutions for some of the chords. Charlie Parker = lightning
fast playing and imagination and was the model for future boppers.
Dizzy = compositional skills helped spread popularity as he was the
prime spokesperson
3. Who were the early bebop pianists and how did they affect the
growth of the musical style?
Thelonious Monk is the best known/original bebop pianist who had an
angular composition and percussive piano style. Bud Powell was
important but his personal issues effected his playing career. Lennie
Tristano was more melodic, cerebral and had impact on growth of
West coast jazz (cool)
4. What was cool jazz, who were key proponents and where did it
develop?
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