[GE CLST 73B] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (11 pages long!)

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UCLA
GE CLST 73B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Memory Palaces and Dream Catchers
Memory = art in ancient/medieval times
o Had to write and replicate in order to make copies
o Learning & studying: had to memorizeno notes
o Poetry & drama
o Oratory & rhetoricvalued more then bc only by listening to people speak could
you get information
o Ppl who could remember were highly valued
Aristotle's rules of voluntary memory
o Contiguity--> similarity--> contrast
Organized in a natural order such as things that are similar, things that
sound the same
Still understand this to be the key principle of memory
Simonides reconstructed guest list from memory after roof caved
Greeks thought memory & creativity = mirrors of each other
o Two variant of same skill
o The more you know --> the more associations you will have for new things you
learn --> the easier it will be to learn more
The Rhetorica ad Herennium
o Short book that described memory palace method (creating web of association
diliberately)
o Used today by "memory athletes"
o How to build a memory place:
Imagine a space you know in your mind (house, school, etc.)
Populate it with images of things u want to remember
More likely to remember things that are "exceptionally base,
dishonorable, extraordinary, great, unbelievable, or laughable"
(dirty, bad, pleasant)
Thomas Aquinas' Memory Rules
o Order, affection, similitudes, meditation
"Ancient Art of Memory"
o Elaborative neural encoding
Visual & other sensory imagery
Bizarre associations
Associations to time & place
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Organization
narration
o Sue Llewellyn suggests that new memories are associated through bizarre &
emotional imagery with establish memories in dreams
Creates a thick web of nodes that will enable future retrieval
How memories are created & storied in brain/how it works/what steps to take to find
out
o Study patients who have memory deficits
Descartes
o When mind wants to remember, volition causes pineal gland to impel animal
spirits toward different parts of brain until they it comes upon the info mind
wants to remember
John Locke
o Memory relies on association of ideas
o Mind stores sensory impressions & ideas
o Links similar simple memories to form complex impressions
o When ideas & impressions are not renewed, colors fade & "print wears out" (if
you do’t recall soethig, you forget.)
David Hartley's "Association Theory"
o External stimuli cause vibrations in nerves
o Repeated exposure to stimulus increases likelihood of nerve vibration
o Overlapping vibrations will trigger each other
o Ex.) smell bacon --> image of bacon
The Engram (physical change in brain): Richard Semon
o "Memory Trace" (Engram) creates permanent physical changes in cells of brain
o Engram is re-activated when sensory impression/idea containing past memory is
encountered.
Pavlov
o Associations of associations
o Memory of bell associated with memory of food
o Suggested that strong excitations of localized areas of sensory cortex radiated to
form weaker responses in contiguous areas
o BUT reflex responses = conditioned to decerebrate animals
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