[GEOG 142] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 108 pages long Study Guide!

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GEOG 142
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Geog 142
Prof. Goodwin-White
Winter 2016
Week 1, Lec. 1
Midterm: Covers Chapters 1-5 (tentatively, probably not all of Ch. 5)
Final Exam: Cumulative, but mostly on Chapters 5-8
Ideally, read 1 chapter per week
Chapter 1
The Past is a Foreign Country
World population number has changed over time
Rate of world population growth is up for debate
Paul Ehrlich (1960s): population bomb- the looming threat of world
population (starvation, atomic bomb, etc.)
U.S. had more immigrants in 1900s than today (2000s)
U.S. was more rural in 1900s compared to today
Fertility Rates
Developed countries: low fertility rates
Developing countries: large population growth, high fertility rates
Replacement rate: 2.1 children to replace the parents
Life Expectancy
U.S. and developed countries: increased → increase in elderly population
Education
More people are educated in the 2000s compared to the 1900s
Why is Demography important?
Global geopolitical and environmental trends
Politics and representation?
Social planning
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Marketing
Resource management
Understand this graph for midterm and final:
Riding the Age Wave: Births and Selected Age Groups in the U.S.
Population: 3 lighter-colored lines (age groups)
Graph starts at 1960 to 2030
How U.S. population’s groups of young vs. old change over time
Dependency ratio: ratio of non-working age population to the working age
population
Non-working/working
Poorer countries: have high dependency ratio with higher #s of young
people
Graph Explanation
Birth rates high in 1960s (tail of Baby Boom)
During this time, there were more young people than old people
Drop in population after 1960s period → introduction of birth control
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