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[LIFESCI 1] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (32 pages long!)


Department
Life Sciences
Course Code
LIFESCI 1
Professor
Tonya Kane
Study Guide
Midterm

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UCLA
LIFESCI 1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1
The Process of Science
Step 1: Be Curious
Scientific Process
Making observations that lead to questions
Use hypothesis to make prediction (what you expect to occur if hypothesis is correct)
oPrediction is if/then statement (explanation if hypothesis is correct), not the hypothesis
Experiments or collect more observations
Either support or reject hypothesis depending on results
Not possible to prove anything, but support hypothesis
Come up with new hypothesis to retest if results do not support hypothesis
Process happens over/over again
If results are consistent over many experiments, hypothesis becomes scientific theory
Correlation does not imply Causation
A increases when B increases
The two values correlate with each other but do not cause each other to increase
Ex. People stressed out thought to give themselves ulcers in stomach
oNot necessarily true
oH. pylori bacteria found to be the cause of ulcers, not the stress
oHigh levels of stress and ulcers correlate, but out of coincidence (no causation)
Ex. Number of pirates and global average temperature
oCause of increase in temp correlated with increase in number of pirates
Use controlled experiments to show causation
Soil nematodes: ubiquitous worms in soil
Hypothesis: Soil nematodes negatively affect plant growth
Prediction: If hypothesis is true, then plants grown in soil with soil nematodes would grow less
compared to those grown in soil without
Experiment: plants grown with and without soil nematodes (change only one variable)
Independent variable: soil nematodes (presence/absence)
Dependent variable: growth of plant
Hypothesis supported by evidence
Francesco Redi’s Experiment
Gauze covered: large particles can’t get through, only small particles
Expect open container to have maggots (prediction)
Support hypothesis: no spontaneous generation of maggots (they come from flies)
Louis Pasteur/microbes
Were microbes spontaneously generated?
Mircrobes in the air
Only exposure to air was different
One flask has opening, one flask has opening with swan neck (traps particles and they don’t get
into flask besides oxygen)
Broth with open flask got cloudy (microbes began to grow in it)
Reject hypothesis that microbes can be spontaneously generated: should’ve seen growth in
both flasks
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