[LIFESCI 2] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (34 pages long)

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UCLA
LIFESCI 2
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1
09.01.17
Biology is a hierarchy of smaller units that compose the largest things in
the universe
Hierarchy of Organisms
o Atomsthe simplest unit of patter. Approximately 27 atoms ar
in the human body. The essential atoms are carbon (C), nitrogen
(N), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H).
o Macromoleculescomplex groups of atoms that form proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.
o Cellsmacromolecules work together to function as the
smallest living organism. Macromolecules powers many
processes such as metabolism, a chemical reaction that converts
energy in a cell.
o Tissuesgroup of cells that have a common function
o Organtwo or more different tissues that work together to
perform work i.e. heart, muscles etc.
o Organ systemgroup of organs that have similar functions
o Organism
Systems in the human body
o Nervous system
Fast acting system that receives, processes and responds
to both internal and external information/changes
o Muscular system
Allows for movement, maintains posture and produces
heat
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2
o Endocrine system
Chemical communicationreleases chemical messengers
(hormones) to regulate growth reproduction and nutrient
use
o Cardiovascular system
Blood transportation that carries oxygen and carbon
dioxide. The heart acts as a pump and blood vessels as
pathways
o Lymphatic/Immune system
Transport leaked blood back into the cardiovascular
system. Houses white blood cells and protects from
foreign substances
o Respiratory system
Delivers oxygen throughout the body for energy
conversion and removes carbon dioxide
o Digestive system
Breaks down food into smaller molecules for easier
digestion
o Urinary system
Regulates chemical consistency and eliminates
nitrogenous waste in urina
o Reproductive system
Maleproduce sperm to be viable for use
Femaleproduce eggs, sex hormones and milk
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