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LING 1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Contrastive Distribution, Complementary Distribution, Part Of Speech

Course Code
Torrence, W.H.
Study Guide

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Prescriptive grammar: adheres to grammar rules
Descriptive grammar: concerned with how people actually talk
Ex. a prescriptive grammarian would think “Me and you should go to the movies” would be
incorrect bc technically it should be “You and I should go” but a descriptive grammarian would
think it was acceptable because people actually say that, despite it being grammatically
Universal properties of languages:
-ways of forming questions
-a finite set of building blocks to form an infinite set of expressions
Broca’s aphasia: affects Broca’s area; patients produce agrammatic sentences meaning they
have fine semantics but bad syntax (ex. Beach...sunny...sand...was fun….love beach…)
Wernicke’s aphasia: affects semantics; patients have fine syntax but choose the wrong words;
impairs reading and writing
Anomia: fine semantics and syntax but can’t place certain words; associated with damage to
the angular gyrus
Contralateral control/Lateralization: the two hemispheres of the brain control opposite sides
of the body; the left side mostly controls language (usually)
Evidence for lateralization:
-Wada Tests (when the left hemisphere of the brain is put to sleep people lose language ability),
-Split brain patients have their corpus callosum cut so their two hemispheres can’t
communicate; when shown things in their left visual field, the image is sent to their right brain
and since their hemispheres can’t communicate, the information doesn’t get sent to the left brain
and they can’t name the objects
Critical Period Hypothesis: if someone doesn’t learn language by the time they go through
puberty, they will be able to learn vocabulary but won’t be able to acquire native like ability
SLI: affects 7-8% of kindergartners; have normal IQ and ability in other areas but impaired
linguistic ability
William’s Syndrome: have low IQ but amazing linguistic ability, shows that there is no
correlation between general intelligence and linguistic ability
6 structures: alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate/velum, uvula, pharynx, glottis,
Know these properties of all consonants and vowels:
-place of articulation
-manner of articulation
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