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LING 165C Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Noun Phrase, Cat, Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LING 165C
Professor
Dylan Bumford
Study Guide
Midterm

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LING 165C

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1/14/19 Lecture 2
- The model world
- Using world to represent how things could’ve went
- Contains truth value
- Functions(Propositions) that maps the scenario to its truth value, namely true or
false
- i.e 1 iff john left in w
[ John left ] = w (world) → 0 iff john left in w
- We have sentences, utterances and propositions (mathematically relevant)
- Example
- Since we are incorporating time into our function, we also need to incorporate
time into our model
- Have a continuous timeline inside of our model
- Since a world need always a time to accompany it, we define the pairing called s
.
More specifically s = (w, i)
where w is the world and i is the time
- Directly Compositional Grammar
- An expression is a triple < [𝞪], C, [𝞪] >
- [𝞪] = sentence
- C: Category
- [𝞪] = denotation
- INTENSION - TR-1
- <S, 𝛕 (extension
)> intension
- Intention takes into account of possibilities, while extension assumes the world is
already known and is set
e.g example for the connective or
- Syncategorematic rule is any time a combination rules introduces a word (and, or)
- Subsentential modes of combination
- Meaning of the sentence is the proposition
- [John Left]
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1/14/19 Lecture 2
- The meaning of john is john. John is not contained in the world because
the world only contains mathematical objects
- True: Pinky might not have been [M’s cat]
- False: Pinky might not have been [pinky]
- Even though M’s cat is pinky, the two sentences comes out to different truth
conditions
- The meaning of a name is a function onto objects, that upon given a world, gives the
object
- i.e [John] is just a function that always maps to the same value 1 disregarding the
world. Whereas something like [M’s cat] maps to different objects upon different
worlds
- Verb phrases are also functions that we takes into a world, tells us whether x in this
world left or not.
- i.e [left] = [w1 {x | x left in w1}]
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1/16/19 Lecture 3
- TR 1/2
- Depending on different worlds, the results from an identity are different.
i.e [The Mayor]
- The same idea applies to verbs. i.e [Left] in W1 may defined J and M left, but W2
defines M to be the only person who left
- The bolded points are all intentions
-Extensions comes from picking one of the rule, and ask what the larger
intentions of the rule are.
- i.e f: <s, t> and f(w) 𝛕 where 𝛕 is the extension
-Example of the Iverson bracket
: [ j { j , m , k } ] = 1
Iverson Bracket:
[ p and q ] = 1 iff p and q is true 0 otherwise
- TR-5
- Let [𝜶] = j or (e) and [𝝱] = {j, m} or (P(e))
- TR-4
- If we have an intransitive verb we also have a verb phrase which also
pronounced the same way and has the same meaning
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