MSC HST 68 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Pete Seeger, Astrid Kirchherr, Woody Guthrie

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MH68 THE BEATLES: Midterm Study Guide
[IDEAS ABOUT PLAY]
Constraints: things that constrain movement within a field, there are cultural, economic,
historical, technological, and educational constraints in music
Play Space: constraints for musical style taken as a collection structure a “play field” and the
composers work within the field
Composer Play: play with the elements of music, results in a musical work
Performer Play: plays w/ what the composer did, as well as the style, results in a performance
of some sort
Listener Play: plays w/ what the composer and the performer did, plus other associations,
results in an experience shaped by memories of what the listener has already hear,
expectations about what they will hear in the future, and the experience of what they hear from
moment to moment
[PEOPLE]
All Four Beatles: John, Paul, George, Ringo
Lonnie Donegan: popularized skiffle music, sang “Gamblin Man”
Elvis Presley: copied the Soul Music but his own spin on it, popular in the 50’s, “Heartbreak
Hotel”, “That’s All Right (Mama)”
Chuck Berry: early American rock and roll, influenced the Beatles, they covered his “Roll Over
Beethoven”, also sings Johnny B Goode
Little Richard: early American rock and roll, influenced the Beatles, sang Long Tall Sally”,
Ray Charles: pioneer in the genre of “Soul Music” and R&B, sings “I Got A Woman
The Quarrymen: the skiffle band John started in 1957, Paul joined later and then George,
named after their high school, played at small local venues
Stuart Sutcliffe: John’s friend that he met at the art school, he started playing bass for them but
wasn’t very good, he came up with the name of the band, he stayed in Hamburg to be w/ Astrid,
died of a brain tumor
Pete Best: the Beatles’ first drummer, played w/ them in Hamburg but was pretty mediocre and
kicked out by Martin, the other Beatles didn’t connect w/ him that well
Rory Storm and the Hurricanes: another beat group that Ringo Starr was in, the Beatles met
them in Hamburg
Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers: most accomplished musicians the Beatles met in
Hamburg
Klaus Voormann: German art friend they met in Hamburg
Jürgen Vollmer: German art friend they met in Hamburg
Astrid Kirchherr: German art friend they met in Hamburg, she took serious, stoic photos of
them and started dating Stuart
Brian Epstein: Beatles’ manager, his family owned NEMS (North End Music Stores), gave the
Beatles a more polished look
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George Martin: recording manager of Parlophone Records, signed the Beatles to Parlophone,
wanted a different drummer bc he thought Pete Best was mediocre
The Cookies: girl band that sings “Chains”
The Shirelles: girl band that sings “Boys”
Berry Gordy: founder of Tamla-Motown record label, wrote “Money (That’s What I Want) which
the Beatles covered
Smokey Robinson: lead singer of The Miracles, their recording of “Shop Around” was the first
major success for a new black-owned label Tamla-Motown
The Marvelettes: girl band that sings “Please Mr. Postman”, Beatles covered them on With the
Beatles
Maureen Cleave: she wrote the article “Why the Beatles Create All that Frenzy” in February
1963, which was the first press coverage of them in London
Princess Margaret: she loved the Beatles when they played at the Royal Variety Show
John F. Kennedy: he was shot on 11/22/63 which deeply and personally affected adolescents
and teens; “I Want To Hold Your Hand” was released the next month in the aftermath amid all
the press coverage of the assassination
Robert Freeman: photographer who took the stoic black and white cover picture for With The
Beatles
Ed Sullivan: had a popular show in the US (Ed Sullivan Show), the Beatles were on it three
times on their first visit to the US
the Maysles Brothers: Albert and David Maysles filmed the Beatles on their first trip to the US
and made a documentary The Beatles: The First U.S. Visit
The Animals: British 60’s rock band, sang House of the Rising Sun”
The Rolling Stones: another British 60’s rock band, influenced by the Beatles as seen in their
haircuts
Richard Lester: film director, directed Beatles movies A Hard Day’s Night and Help!
Wilfrid Bramble: played Paul’s grandfather in A Hard Day’s Night
Cecil Sharp: founding father of the folk-song revival in England in the early 20th century
Woody Guthrie: folk singer, sang “This Land is Your Land” and “House of the Rising Sun”,
strong influences on Bob Dylan
Pete Seeger: sang “Solidarity Forever” folks singer guy
The Almanac Singers: folk group founded by Pete Seeger and Woody Guthrie
Bob Dylan: folk singer whose influence on the Beatles can be seen in “You’ve Got to Hide Your
Love Away”, sang “Blowin in the Wind”and “Only a Pawn in Their Game”, influenced by Woody
Guthrie, introduced the Beatles to weed!
Medgar Evers: a Civil Rights activist, he was assassinated in 1963 and Bob Dylan mentions
him in “Only a Pawn in Their Game”
[BUSINESSES]
Decca Records: major British label; when Brian Epstein was trying to get the Beatles signed he
reached out to them & EMI; they sent a representative to listen to them but didn’t like them
EMI Records (Electrical and Musical Industries): major British label, the world’s biggest
record company and Parlophone’s parent company; Brian Epstein reached out to them and
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