[PHILOS 8] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 23 pages long Study Guide!

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6 Feb 2017
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PHILOS 8
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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5
SECTION 1
Chapter 1:
-objective: factual, non-biased, not skewed by individual opinion/social
structure, based on reality rather than perception
-empiricists: John Locke, David Hume (“how do we know that the sun will
rise tomorrow?”) + testimony + senses
-issues: people’s senses are imperfect, the problem of interpretation &
language (what is a reliable testimony?)
Chapter 2:
- How is empiricism related to logical positivism?
- What is the difference between inductive (Hume’s sun) and deductive rea-
soning?
- What is the difference between observational and theoretical?
- What is observation?
- What is the analytic-synthetic division?
- How is the analytic-synthetic division related to the inductive-deductive divi-
sion?
O U T L I N E
1) The big idea: X is scientific --> testable
2) Unpacking testability: observation, degrees, possibility
3) Break
4) Where do math/logic fit in?
5) Analytic/Synthetic: too much science?
6) Testing holism: not enough science?
7) Ayer
LECTURE 2
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-holism: nothing is every tested in isolation but within other background claims
-proposition: Ayers synonym for X (claim, belief, judgement...)
-necessary condition: testability is a necessary condition for being scientific
-sufficient condition: if you are testable you are a sufficient condition for being scientific
-analytic / synthetic: true just in virtue of meaning / true because of how the world is
-a-priori / a-posteriori: figure out just by thinking / figure out by observation
-testable: empirically testable via observation/experience (looking and seeing), does not
mean proving with 100% certainty or refuting the hypothesis in question
The BIG Idea
if X is something that is capable of being true or false, and if X is scientific, then at the very
least X is testable / if X is scientific, then whatever else is true about X has to be testable. (X
has to be a claim, judgement, belief, hypotheses, proposition, assertion) BUT if something
is testable, it does not guarantee that it is scientific
yes: scientific --> testable
no: scientific<--> testable
being testable is necessary for being scientific
- possibility of testing: possible in principle but not in practice yet still considered testable
- How do you test some historical claim without a time traveling device? Is history science?
Mathematics & Positivism
- pure math is not empirically testable ~ similar to good philosophy = analytic & a-priori
- applied math is empirically testable (there are 9 planets: you have to go out there and ob-
serve) ~ similar to science = synthetic & a-posteriori
- none sense ~ bad philosophy
*analytic: all unmarried men are bachelors (true due to the virtue of what the word “ bache-
lor” is defined to be) ~ is the pope a bachelor?
*synthetic: all unmarried men are unhappy (true not because of the definition of the word
“happy”)
LOGICAL POSITIVISM / EMPIRICISM I
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