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[PHYSCI M140] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (37 pages long)


Department
Physiological Science
Course Code
PHYSCI M140
Professor
Lynch Alfaro
Study Guide
Final

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UCLA
PHYSCI M140
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Physci M140
Lecture 1
Schlinger: Terasaki Life Science Building-2121
Lynch Alfaro: Wed 12-1pm 3323 E Life Science, or by appointment
Why Study Hormones and Behavior?
- Relevant to modern society/culture
- From individual health to society level interactions, hormonal systems impact a vast number of
behavioral states
- Issues in the news
Origins of Behavioral Endocrinology
- Folk knowledge of effects of castration
- Arnold Adolph Berthold’s experiment on roosters and castration
- Frank Beach, Jr. -cortical lesions in rats, etc.
Aristotle (350 B.C.)
- Secondary characteristics driven by hormones
- Once the male has gone through puberty, at that point if you castrate, not much of male
phenotype goes away
Arnold Adolph Berthold’s experiments- 1805s
- 3 groups of male chicks
- Group 1: castration
- Group 2: castration and reimplantation of testes
- Group 3: castration and transplantation of testes across individuals
- Result:
oGroup 1: caponization: small combs and wattles, no interest in hens, no aggression
oGroup 2: normal male development, normal comb/wattles, normal male behavior
oGroup 3: normal male development, normal comb/wattles, normal male behavior
oThere is demasculized phenotype and masculized phenotype
- Revascularized but not reinervated…key observation!
- Something in the blood responsible for producing male phenotype
Cultural Castration of Humans
- Castrati: male opera singers in Europe
- Eunichs in imperial court in China
- Hijras of India (wedding dancers and singers)
- If castrated BEFORE puberty, long arms, short stature, no beard, high voice, no sex drive
- If castrated AFTER puberty, little effect on physical appearance or sexual behavior
What is a Hormone?
- Organic chemical messengers produced and released by endocrine glands
- Released into bloodstream but exceptions
- Act on target tissues (with receptors) at some variable distance from their origin
- Hormones coordinate physiology and behavior by regulating, integrating, and controlling bodily
function
- Hormones change gene expression and cellular function
First true hormone described: secretin (1905)- coined by Bayliss and Starling
- Bayiss and Starling studied how nervous system controlled digestion, which was what people
believed
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- Substance was secreted by intestinal lining that stimulates pancreas after being transported via
bloodstream, called secretin (first chemical messenger, now called a hormone)
- Discovery of insulin in 1920s gave huge boost to field of endocrinology
Illustration of Cellular Process
- Packaged hormone enters bloodstream then leaves to go to target cell if the cell has a receptor
What is Behavior?
- “Output”
- Coordinated movement-neuromuscular
- Lack of movement (i.e. hiding to avoid predators)- neuromuscular
- ALSO: excretion of scents and chemicals, changes, in skin coloration, vocalizations, production of
electrical signals, etc.
Behavioral Endocrinology
- 1920s-1930s: biochemical isolation and synthesis of hormones achieved: experiments initiated
- Book “Hormones and Behavior” by Beach in 1948-marked beginning of the field of Behavioral
Endocrinology
- Scientific study of the bi-directional interaction between behavior and hormones
- What causes animal A to emit behavior X?
- Behaviors are triggered by CNS (central nervous system)
Beach’s Experiments
- Lesions of brains in rats (ablation)
- Changes in maternal behavior in first time mothers
- Changes in mating behavior in males: dogs to hyenas at UC Berkeley
Hormone-Behavior Interactions
- Hormonally-dependent behavior should disappear when source of hormone removed or actions
of hormone blocked
- After behavior stops, restoration of missing hormonal source or hormone should reinstate
absent behavior
- Hormone concentrations and behavior covariant; higher concentration = higher likelihood of
behavior…But only to a point!!!
Levels of Analysis
- What causes animal A to emit behavior X?
oImmediate causation (mechanistic)
oDevelopment (ontogenetic)
oEvolution (phylogenetic)
oAdaptive function (adaptive/functional)
- Ex. What causes male juncos to sing?
oImmediate causation: elevated androgen levels
oDevelopment: ZZ (male)/ZW (female) chromosomes, sex-specific gonadal growth, hitting
puberty; learning song form dad
oEvolution: males sing in all species of junco -juncos are songbirds- all songbirds sing
-inherited from common ancestor
oAdaptive function: increases fitness -male competition? Female choice?
Hormones, Behavior, and You
- What classes, fieldwork, or labwork have you done already as related to behavior and or
hormones?
- What kinds of studies are you most interested in learning about?
- What taxa/species groups matter to you?
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