PSYCH 161 Midterm: Psych 161 Midterm Study Guide

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Adriana Galvan

Psych 161 Study Guide Lecture 1 (4/5/17) • We only use 10% of our brain o Every single part of the brain is on at all times o It is metabolically expensive and it wouldn’t make sense for a part of the brain not to be working. • The brain doesn’t grow new cells o Only happens in ▪ Hippocampus – learning and memory ▪ Olfactory bulb – Smell and to learn about the environment • Some people are left-brained and some are right-brained • Playing Mozart to babies boosts their intelligence (“Mozart Effect”) o There are many ways that environment will influence babies in utero • Psychiatric illnesses are not “real” illnesses ------------------------- • SUMMARY o Development is the study of change and is an emergent product (not laid out beforehand) o Change occurs as a product of gene-environment interactions o Development is an agent in the product o Thelan emphasizes development as a dynamic system • Dynamic System (Linda Smith and Esther Thelen) o A system that is responsive to its environment and is constantly changing. o We do a lot of changing/learning from the environment and taking the information to decide what’s most useful to survive as a species. o To do this you need to be dynamic and flexible to receive input, and at some point be able to stabilize. o Development is an emergent product of many decentralized and local interactions that occur in a specific time ▪ It is self-organizing ▪ Systems generate novelty through their own activity ▪ You can’t teach a brain how to be a brain • Emergence – coming into existence in a new form through ongoing processes o Systems can generate novelty through their own creativity o They emerge as one product; generate novelty separately to come together ▪ Analogy of how the brain works: baseball team • Their way of playing baseball through trial and error; by practicing together, they formulate the best way to function together • Each player represents decentralized components but over the course of time they become one unit ▪ Each brain region is important in a part of development but comes together to be a brain • Characteristics of a Developing System o There is no present hard-wired program for crawling in the brain ▪ Instead, it is a self-organizing solution to a problem ▪ Kids are motivated to start walking because it is more efficient ▪ Development is finding a solution that works within your constraints. o Development is hierarchical ▪ Phenotypes can emerge from a complex and ongoing interplay of factors ▪ The “individual” constructs their phenotypes from an already existing developmental history. • Multicausality o There are multiple causes for acquisition of a new skill for development ▪ Ex. Motor skills, motivation to crawl ▪ The more the kid practices the walking, it will strengthen the motor cortex. o No executive agent – not single element has causal priority (hence: Multicausality) o Organisms are complex systems composed of many individual elements o Self-organization – developmental changes occurs because of relationships between organic components of the system o Development is a series of evolving and dissolving patterns of stability (changing) – rather than an “inevitable march” towards maturity ▪ Ex. Using a knife and fork clumsily (less elegant) then once you acquire the ability to expertly cut meat then you’re fancy and can cut meat perfectly. ▪ Maturity is challenging to define. o Example of multicausality: object permanence ▪ Piaget: “when do infants acquire the concept of object permanence?” ▪ Object permanence – the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched. o A-not-B Object Hiding Task ▪ Test in babies at beginning of life to see when they understand object permanence. ▪ Baby is shown to two wells (A and B) • Put toy in well A continuously, but then they move it from Well A to Well B, ask him to get the toy and looks into Well A even though we put it in B in front of the baby’s face. • 8-10 month old infants consistently make the error • Infants older than 12 months of age perform this task correctly (reach for B location) ▪ Significant shift in performance at this age because of multicausality. ▪ Multiple causes for improved performance (MULTICAUSALITY) • Motor memory is better • Longer attention span • Ability to inhibit response ▪ Multiple causes for error (MULTICAUSALITY) • Hiding Toy in Location B • Salience is on Location A • Strong memory of Location A builds up • Hiding Toy in Location B o Large representation for Location B o Because the baby has seen A so many times, lingering memory of A begins to dominate ▪ Making the error vanish by changing: • The attention-grabbing properties of the covers of the well o Playing music during switching items • The attention-grabbing properties of the hiding event o Visual properties – make A red cloth and B blue cloth • The delay o If the picking of toy happens immediately after they put it in B, baby will have better chance of going to B • The past activity of the infant • The position of the infant during hiding event of B o If baby is viewing from birds eye view he does better than looking straight on ▪ Knowledge about correct location is emergent • It emerges from multiple components of the task and previous history of the infant • Infants self-organize based on what information is available to them and their ability to hold that information Lecture 2 (4/10/17) • How does experience change the brain? o Ex. Family, therapy, new friends, learning, love life o They are most plastic in early development, but are plastic throughout your entire life. • Neuroplasticity - Changes that occur in the organization of the brain because of experience • Sensitive Period – A limited period when experience can influence brain development (usually in sensory and motor domains). o Heightened sensitivity to certain environmental/sensory stimuli (ex. Light) o The terms “sensitive/critical” periods do not describe the mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs ▪ Mechanism – the way something happens ▪ The neuronal changes that facilitates heightened sensitivity • Greenough et al proposed a new classification to replace “sensitive period” (KNOW) o Experience-expectant ▪ The organism is EXPECTING input ▪ Experience-expectant processes are PRETTY IRREVERSIBLE • Neurons become committed to a particular pattern of organization. • Ex you can’t suture a kitten’s eyes for their first 6 years and expect unimpaired vision after the sutures are removed. ▪ Species have evolved neural mechanisms to take advantage of experiences that typically occur (ex. visual input) to shape developing motor and sensory systems ▪ Timing occurs at roughly the same time among individuals ▪ If “expected’ visual input is not received during the critical periods in development, alterations develop in: • Behavior (ex trouble with visual discrimination tasks) • Physiology (ex neurons only respond to stimuli they have been reared with) • Morphology (ex neurons make fewer and abnormal interconnections with other neurons) ▪ Ex. Monocular Deprivation • One eye is sutured shut during the sensitive period • Deprived eye becomes functionally disconnected from visual cortex neurons (“use it or lose it”) • Open eye becomes more functionally integrated with both sides of visual cortex ▪ Ex. Ocular Dominance Columns • • Top picture is the normal eye where you can see even columns • Bottom picture shows that after deprivation, the typical eye has broader column o Neurons that represent the deprived eye eventually shrink away and are not used. • SUMMARY: o Organisms expect visual input o If visual input is not received by a certain age (developmental stage), the other eye, and its related neural processes, compensate. ▪ Why is it adaptive for organisms to rely on expected input? • The environment is already there • Take advantage of the fact that the brain is set up in a particular way…a template o Genes sketch an outline and the environment fills in the details ▪ There are “eye” genes, but not “visual input” genes • Fine-tuning occurs by eliminating unnecessary synapses/strengthening necessary synapses o Experience-dependent ▪ Experience/input that is unique to the individual ▪ Experience differs in timing among individuals ▪ Neural plasticity based on changing environment ▪ A species cannot count on certain important experiences to occur at particular points in the lifespan ▪ Experience is unique to the individual’s own environment ▪ How can we learn about experience-dependent processes? • Change the rearing environment o These classifications consider: ▪ The evolutionary origins of a process ▪ Its adaptive value for the individual ▪ The required timing for the process ▪ The organism’s active role in obtaining appropriate experience for itself ▪ The experience-expected mechanisms are based on the fact that we can count on certain stimuli happening • Ex. Visual/auditory/language input • Synaptogenesis is the key reason why we have plasticity in the brain o It creates and gets rid of synapses as needed o Synapse – juncture between 2 neurons. One neuron communicates with another neuron. o Synaptogenesis occurs throughout life ▪ 5 distinct waves ▪ Highly orchestrated o Neurogenesis occurs in adulthood in hippocampus and olfactory bulb • IMPORTANT FIGURE FOR EXAM: o o Showing an initial overproduction of synapses (occurring at P3 after birth) that leads to the pruning (elimination) of synapses around the time of puberty. o Density of synapses – the number of synapses in the visual cortex o P1 and P2 are Experience-independent phase because this is all just genetically mapped out. ▪ Cannot easily be influenced by experience from the external world o o P3 and P4 is Experience-Expectant/Dependent ▪ Right before birth there is ramping up of synapses in the visual cortex because your brain is EXPECTING to receive a lot of visual input ▪ Experience expectant (before birth) and/or dependent (after birth) ▪ P3 in humans, compared to other animals, is elongated • Thought that it is because the human visual cortex is more complex in humans than in other animals. • In most other animals, their brain development is more focused on olfaction. ▪ P4 refers to childhood years (varies by region; Visual cortex: 2-3 years; PFC: through adolescence) • Extended period of synaptic fine-tuning o  Represents Pruning (Red arrow) o P5 and Puberty is Experience Dependent ▪ Not all connections between every neurons are strong ▪ Ex. First year in college (a lot of friends but very weak)  Mid-College (fewer friends but slightly strong)  Graduation (even fewer friend but even stronger)  etc. ▪ Loss of synapse around puberty may be related to hormonal changes • Environmental Complexity Paradigm o Environmental Complexity (EC) Animals ▪ Housed in groups in large cages ▪ Access to objects to manipulate ▪ Exposure to challenges (mazes) • All of these things keep animal engaged and most aligned to environment animals have in the real world ▪ These animals perform better on complex tasks than animals reared in SC or IC. ▪ Results of Dobrossey and Dunett, 2001 study ▪ o Social Cage (SC) Animals ▪ Housed in pairs in standard cages ▪ No objects • Least like what animals experience in real life o Individual Cage (IC) Animals ▪ Housed alone ▪ No objects o Enrichment effects on neuronal morphology ▪ Enriched environment animals have many more dendrites than the non- enriched environment animals ▪ ▪ EC animals have significantly more neurons than control animals in region of the hippocampus (GCL) ▪ At first there is no big difference, but then 4 weeks later, you can see a significant difference ▪ To test if this transfers to tasks, enriched animals showed better performance than the control group ▪ • Possible mechanisms for Experience-Dependent neuroplasticity o “Excess” synapses are not eliminated o Production of new synapses through activity-dependent mechanisms ▪ Evidence for this include: • Greater synapse formation in EC rats • Long-term potentiation (LTP): increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation • Enhanced communication by improving the postsynaptic cell’s sensitivity to signals received from the presynaptic cell • Not all plasticity is the same o Developmental Plasticity ▪ Experience-expectant ▪ Experience influences the basic architecture of the brain (how the brain is going to be organized) • Ex. Building a house from the ground up ▪ Alterations to the auditory/visual systems during development usually alters function (ex vision) o Adult Plasticity ▪ Experience-Dependent ▪ Experience influences the existing architecture of the brain (the brain is reorganized to incorporate additions/deletions) • Ex. House remodel: adding a room to an existing structure ▪ Expertise and training influence brain function (ex somatosensory cortex is changed in musicians) • Somatosensory cortex critical for finger movements ▪ Hoening et al 2011 Experiment – Musicians vs Non-musicians • Put in MRI and exposed to musical instruments or non instruments • Results: Greater activation in temporal gyrus (auditory cortex) when viewing pictures of musical instruments and musical sounds for musicians but not non-musicians. o Because of musician’s experience with instruments, their brain responds to that experience Lecture 3 (4/12/17) • Prenatal Development o Genetic factors guide the tempo of growth and the emergence of individual characteristics o The psychosocial environment provides both the resources for and challenges to healthy development • Two types of genetic information o Gene pool (species-related characteristics) ▪ Genetic information from the human species (ex patterns of motor behavior such as walking upright, brain size and body structure) ▪ Basis for experience-expectant processes o Ancestry ▪ Hair color, skin color, blood type, etc. ▪ Specific to each individual ▪ Make up only 0.1% of all your DNA but account for all the individual variability • Chromosomes o 46 chromosomes with 2 of them being sex chromosomes o Alleles - Each gene has at least 2 possible versions (one on each chromosomes) • Genetic Variability contributes to behavior/trait variability o Rate of development ▪ Genes help regulate the pace of maturation • Even though we have the same genes, we may have different rate of that gene • People start developing things at different times ▪ Genes signal the onset of growth spurts, teeth, puberty and menopause • Motor skills, intellectual capacity and timing of physical maturation are under strong genetic influence • Interacts with environment to promote development o Individual traits ▪ Sociability, inhibition and neuroticism have strong genetic components • Ex if one twin shows neuroticism, it’s likely to happen that identical twin will also have neuroticism ▪ This also interacts with environment • Ex a parent who is temperamentally sociable is more likely to have a sociable child, which may be due to genetics and/or by modeling the parents’ social behavior • Attractive People • Healthy Teeth o Abnormal development ▪ Spontaneous abortion (15-20% of pregnancies) ▪ Birth Defects • Genetic Disorders: linked to specific genes (sickle cell, anemia, etc) • Chromosomal disorders st o Down – extra 21 chromosome o Turner – Lack of one X in females o Klinefelter – Extra X in males o o First two weeks with dividing zygote – not susceptible to teratogens ▪ Teratogens – harmful outside substances that mother may be consume such as alcohol ▪ After first 2 weeks, there are stressors that may affect prenatal development. o First Trimester (Germinal Period) ▪ Starts to divide into 2 then 4 then 8 cells, etc.  blastocyst • Programmed o Inner Cell Mass ▪ Blastocyst – inner cell mass + outer cell mass • Inner cell mass  entire mass • Outer cell mass  placenta + other auxiliary organs just for pregnancy o Only there for 9 months of person’s life ▪ Embryonic Stage • Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm o Ectoderm – CNS, PNS, Skin, Hair, Nails • Undifferentiated – final fate not yet determined • Induction – Process of transforming undifferentiated tissue o Neurulation (18-24 prenatal days) – undifferentiated tissue becomes the brain and spinal cord (CNS) ▪ Based on genetic information ▪ Making something more from something less o Neuronal Migration (6-24) Prenatal Weeks ▪ Neurons are born in a different place from where they end up ▪ Active method: neurons move in an inside-out direction to form 6 cortical layers • • Neurons along the bottom key migrating up to the top ▪ Inside-out Migration • • New cells migrate through already existing layers ▪ Disorders of Neuronal Migration occur when neurons do not migrate and stay at the bottom layer • Lissencephaly (smooth brain): the brain is not typically developed; not as much detail because neurons do not reach intended destination. ▪ Outside-in Migration • • Passive: neurons are displaced by new neurons • Environmental input can change phenotype o Neural tube defects associated with deficiency of folic acid ▪ Neural tube fails close or neural fold di not advance to become the tube o In 1992, the US Public Health Service recommended that women of childbearing age increase consumption of folic acid to combat this o In 1996 the FDA authorized all enriched cereal grains to be fortified with folic acid • Proliferation o Neurogenesis – birth of new neurons o 100,000+ per minute o Occurs by process of cell division. One cell will continue to divide, but one will stop dividing and continue to a final destination. • How do neurons know where to go? o Radial glial cells provide guidance (glia are supporting, helper, cells) o Neurons strap themselves to glial cells and migrate up o Neurons that don’t die develop axons and dendrites to communicate with others • Myelination – fatty protein that wraps itself around an axons as a form of insulation and increases speed between neurons • First Trimester (Embryonic Period) o Certain hormones and organs are only produced during pregnancy ▪ Hormone that maintains uterine lining (used for pregnancy tests) ▪ Placenta: nutrients pass from mother to embryo • Allows teratogens (viruses, medicines, drugs) to pass through • Embryo is particularly vulnerable during weeks 3-9 to exposure of teratogens. • First Trimester (Fetal Period) o Differentiation of sex organs, guided by genetic information o Both male and female embryos go through bisexual stage, during which no sex- linked characteristics can be discerned o Both have surface mass that becomes testes in males and eventually deteriorates in females ▪ In males, sperm ducts develop and female ducts dissolve ▪ In females, the fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina develop o Sex hormones direct male and female brains along slightly different paths ▪ Particularly amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus • Second Trimester o Fetus begins to explore his/her surroundings o Starts to have grasping reflex • Third Trimester o Significant maturation of the nervous system o Sensitive to musical sounds, changes in speech sounds, stories • The importance of time and timing in brain development o Development occurs as a cascade of events o One event may influence those that follow but not precede it o Ex. Mental retardation and high radiation levels (Otake and Schull, 1984) ▪ Mostly in 8 -15 week of pregnancy because this is when neural migration occurs. ▪ ▪ Shows that when a particular event occurs in development can influence long-term outcomes Lecture 4 (4/17/17) • What is G x E? o Gene-environment interaction (or genotype-environment interaction) is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways • Gene x Environment Influence on Development o Development occurs because genetic information and the environment exert influence over it. o Both are influential throughout the lifespan, even prenatally • Factors that influence fetal development the most o Poverty – associated with poor prenatal healthcare ▪ Prenatal healthcare is the biggest reason why poverty is an influential factor. ▪ Poverty also affects all the other risk factors listed below! o Mother’s age ▪ Impoverished folks usually get pregnant at earlier ages ▪ Uterine environment tends to be best in mothers between ages 16-35 ▪ Mothers over 35 have higher risk deliveries • Higher risk for Down syndrome due to older ova and/or old sperm. ▪ Mothers 16 or younger: • Premature children with neurological defects • More likely to engage in high-risk behaviors o Ex. Drug use – will compromise baby physical and cognitive development for reasons not related to the really young uterus o Use of drugs ▪ Impoverished folks may be less aware of risks of drug use ▪ Drugs (teratogens) are passed from mother to fetus through the placenta ▪ Some fetuses are more susceptible to negative effects because of genetic makeup • Not all drugs will necessarily result in stillbirth, etc. but we don’t know who’s fetus will be more susceptible ▪ Effects are not “all-or-none” (vary by dosage, type, etc) ▪ Effects of Nicotine – Smoking is one of the only things that consistently have shown a history of birth defects • Higher rates of miscarriage • Lower birthweight • Greater risk of sudden infant death syndrome due to respiratory problems ▪ Effects of Alcohol • Interfere with cell development and organization • Interfere with NT production • Fetal alcohol syndrome o 30-50% likelihood in heavy drinking mothers o Disorders of central nervous system o Malformation of eyes, face, ears and mouth ▪ Thin top lip ▪ Large space between nose and lip ▪ Effects of Narcotics (cocaine, heroin) • Increased risk of birth defects, higher infant mortality, low birthweight • Extreme irritability • Attention problems later in life (ex ADHD) • Long-term outcomes vary ▪ Legal action for substance abuse during pregnancy? • Ex. Talitha Garrick – charged with murder of unborn fetus for smoking crack o Her intent wasn’t to harm the child, but was sentenced to 3 years in prison o Placenta had detached and fetus had suffocated o Exposure to environmental toxins ▪ Impoverished folks may live closer to toxins ▪ Workplace (ex chemical plants) ▪ Father’s exposure to solvents and chemicals can also lead to spontaneous abortion or birth defects ▪ The prenatal factor interact with the rearing environment o Diet ▪ Impoverished folks usually suffer from malnutrition, diabetes, or CVD • Good prenatal healthcare can help o Compared to women on Medicaid who received prenatal education, those who did not have prenatal education had: ▪ 23% higher infant mortality ▪ 29% lower likelihood of having a postnatal exam ▪ 62% higher chance of very low birth weight (less than 5lbs 8ozs) o Consequences of low birth weight – All are important for normal cognitive development ▪ Breathing problems • Focusing in on struggle of breathing will interfere with walking ▪ Bleeding in the brain ▪ Heart problems ▪ Digestion problems ▪ Retinopathy (vision problems) • G x E Norm of Reaction o Genotype works cl
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