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[PSYCH 15] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (54 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 15
Professor
Jared Wong
Study Guide
Final

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UCLA
PSYCH 15
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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9/22/16: Lecture 1: Intro
What is Psychobiology?
Brain (network of neurons--cells that send/receive electrochemical signals)
Neuroscience-- study of nervous system
Psychobiology: Study of biology of behavior--subdiscipline of neuroscience
The Organization of Behavior--D.O. Hebbs (1949)
Proposed that psychological phenomena may be produced by brain
Discredited notion that psychology was too complex for physiological activity
Psychobiology’s Relationship with Other Disciplines
Draws info from other disciplines--integrated discipline
Fields relevant to psychobiology:
Neuroanatomy (structure)
Neurochemistry (chemical bases)
Neuroendocrinology (interactions between the endocrine and nervous systems)
Neuropathology (disorders)
Neuropharmacology (drugs)
Neurophysiology (functions/activities)
Research
3 dimensions in which research differs:
Subjects
Humans
Follow instructions
Report subjective experiences
Cheaper
Human brain
Nonhumans
Simpler brains (reveal brain-behavior interactions more easily)
Comparative approach (compare with other species)
Fewer ethical restrictions (still heavily regulated)
Methods
Experiments: draw cause-and-effect relationships
Independent and dependent variables
Between- and within- subject designs
Between-subject design: Compare 2 groups
Within-subject design: Every subject experiences both
conditions (serve as own control)
Confounded variable: unintended differences between conditions--
influences dependent variable
Hard to eliminate
Makes experiment hard to interpret (hard to tell how much was
caused by independent variable and how much was caused by
confounded variable)
Nonexperiments
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Quasiexperimental studies: studies of groups of subjects exposed to real
world conditions
Not real experiments--potential confounded variables not
controlled
Cannot randomly assign (ex: gender, alcoholism)
Must choose from existing population--not true
independent variable (no manipulation)
Case study: focus on 1 case/subject
More in-depth, good source of testable hypotheses
Problem: generalizability (degree to which results can be applied
to other cases)
Types of Research
Pure: purpose of acquiring knowledge
vulnerable to political regulation--politicians may not understand
purpose of pure research
Applied: intended to bring some direct benefit to humankind
Many projects have elements of both approaches
Divisions of Psychobiology
Physiological psychology: neural mechanisms of behavior
Direct manipulation of brain in controlled experiments (Surgical or electrical brain
manipulation)
Usually lab animals
Strong focus on pure research
Psychopharmacology: manipulation of neural activity/behavior with drugs
Substantial portion is applied research
Neuropsychology: psychological effects of brain damage in humans
Case study or quasiexperimental
Has focused on cerebral cortex since it is most likely to be damaged by accident or
surgery
Most applied of psychobiological subdisciplines
Psychophysiology: Relation between physiological activity and psychological processes in
humans
Usually noninvasive (EEG, eye movement)
Cognitive neuroscience: neural bases of cognition
Newest division
Usually human subjects
Key methods: functional brain imaging techniques
Comparative psychology: compare different species to understand evolution, genetics,
adaptiveness of behavior
Biology of behavior
Uses lab and ethological (animals in natural environment) research
Converging Operations
Multiple approaches to address a single question--strengths of one compensate for weaknesses of
another
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