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PSYCH 15- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 33 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 15
Professor
Jared Wong
Study Guide
Midterm

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UCLA
PSYCH 15
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Psychiatric Disorders
Disorders of psychological function that require treatment
Diagnoses is guided by DSM-V of American Psychiatric Association
Schizophrenia
“Splitting of psychic functions”
Refers to the breakdown of integration of emotion, thought and action
Affects 1% of the population
A diverse disorder, multiple types exist with varied profiles
Some symptoms: delusions ,hallucinations, odd behavior, incoherent thought,
inappropriate affect
Two needed for one month diagnoses
Positive Symptoms: presence of problematic behaviors Negative Symptoms: absence of healthy behaviors
-Hallucinations (illusory perceptions), especially
auditory
-Delusions (illusory beliefs, especially persecutory)
(of grandeur,they’re important, TSwift loves them)
-Disorganized thought and nonsensical speech (aphasia)
-Bizarre behaviors
- Flat affect (no emotion showing in face)
-Reduced social interaction (withdraw)
-Anhedonia (no feeling of enjoyment) - “lack of”
“pleasure”
-Avolition (less motivation, initiative, focus on tasks)
-Alogia (speaking less)
All possible types, but not necessary to have all of them
Evidence for a genetic contribution
Inherit an increased risk for the disorder
Multiple Causes
Several different chromosomes implicated
Associated with various early insults- infections, autoimmune reactions,
toxins, traumatic injury stress
Appears that interference with the normal development of susceptible
individuals may lead to development of the disorder
We don’t know what causes it, no common cause
Discovery of the First Antipsychotic Drug
Much of our understanding of schizophrenia is a consequence of the drugs that
are able to treat it
Chlorpromazine: calms many agitated schizophrenics and activates many
emotionally blunted schizophrenics
Reserpine: also found to be effective, no longer used
Both drugs are not effective for 2-3 weeks, and Parkinson like motor effects are
seen
Dopamine Theory of Schizophrenia
Neuron releases NT dopamine
Releases into synapse and binds with receptor
Chlorpromazine blocks the receptor (antagonist) of dopamine
Blocks connection and reduces activity of dopamine
Schizophrenia probably has something to do with dopamine neurons
1960’s link between dopamine and Parkinson’s disease established
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Antipsychotic drug side effects suggests role for dopamine- drugs work by
decreasing dopamine levels; schizophrenia associated with dopamine
overactivity
Reserpine depletes brain of dopamine and other monoamines by making
vesicles “leaky”
Amphetamine and cocaine are dopamine agonists and produce psychosis
Chlorpromazine antagonizes dopamine activity by binding and blocking
dopamine receptors
In general, the higher affinity a drug has for dopamine receptors, the more
effective it is in treating schizophrenia
Haloperidol- an exception
While most antipsychotics bind to D1 and D2 receptors, haloperidol binds
to D2
Side effects: obesity, diabetes, and movement problems (sluggishness,
twitching, tardive dyskinesia)
Tardive Dyskinesia: joker suffered from schizophrenia, smacking and
licking lips
The more effective it is at blocking D2 receptors, the more effective it is
Limitations of Dopamine Theory
Clozapine, an atypical and effective neuroleptic, acts at D1, D4, and serotonin
receptors, but only has some binding to D2 receptors
Neuroleptics (antischizophrenic drugs) act quickly at synapse, but don’t feel it for
weeks
Slow developing compensatory change responsible for therapeutic effect
Schizophrenia is associated with reduced brain volume
Little damage to dopamine circuitry
Not explained by dopamine theory
Neuroleptics are only effective for some
Affective Disorders
Depression: normal reaction to loss, abnormal when it persists or has no cause
Can’t just say “cheer up”
Mania: overconfidence, impulsivity, distractibility and high energy
Major Categories of Affective Disorders
Affective disorders
Psychiatric disorders characterized by disturbances of mood or emotion
Also known as mood disorders
Includes depression and mania
Types of Depression
Unipolar or bipolar
Reactive vs. Endogenous
Causal Factors in Affective Disorders
~5% suffer from from unipolar affective disorder at some point, ~1% from
bipolar
Genetics
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