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[PSYCH 150] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (117 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 150
Professor
Tomiyama
Study Guide
Final

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UCLA
PSYCH 150
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1
Psych 150 – Mar 29- Lecture 1
Closeted men with HIV die earlier
Why?
- Loneliness gets under the skin and effects health
- Effects of stress: high cortisol (which lessens your immune system)
- Maybe closeted men are in more rural areas; and more rural areas have less health care
accessibility
Actual findings:
- People who are in the closet are more “rejection sensitive” (and die earlier)
- Tested by asking questions like this:
Rate your discomfort in each situation:
- Having straight friends in your home with your partner present
- Going out in public with a group of gay men
- Having a job interview where one’s marital status is discussed
- How does rejection sensitivity get under the skin?
- They found that individuals with higher fight/flight sensitivity had a low T-cell count
(what makes your immune system work)
- BUT WHY?
- Adrenaline/Epinephrine (which is the key player in fight/flight) makes HIV
replicate faster
- They identified that a transcription factor (NFKB) gets turned on when
epinephrine hits cell receptors
- NFKB tells the (HIV) cell to replicate itself
What is health psych?
- Health psychology is the scientific contribution of psychology (meaning thoughts, emotions,
and behaviors) to:
1) the promotion and maintenance of health (health is not just the absence of disease; defined
as a complete state of physical, mental, and social well being)
2) the prevention and treatment of illness
3) the identification of the causes of health, illness, and dysfunction
4) the analysis and improvement of the health care system
Bidirectional Relationship
1) the effects of physical health on psychological functioning
2) the effects of psychological factors on physical health
Which of the following is a topic that health psychologists might study?
A. Doctors’ success at diagnosing illness [too medical]
B. Smoking’s effect on the brain [exclusively physiological]
C. Athletic training for maximum fitness [too phys sci]
D. The effect of stress on cardiovascular disease
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2
Proper Research: “The French Paradox”
- The French eat horrible foods, but are healthier than Americans. Maybe it’s because they
drink wine?
- NO; just because there is a correlation between more wine and lower risks of death
What might be happening?
1) the causal thing: what you want to happen
2) reverse causation: where the other thing is actually causing the other thing
3) confound: something else is causing both things (3rd variable)
The only way we can ever say A causes B, is if we do a TRUE experiment
1. Manipulate variable A.
2. Hold everything else constant: Random assignment to condition.
3. Measure variable B.
Then you can say that changes in variable B were caused by variable A.
**In health psychology, random assignment is usually not an option.
Quasi-Experimental Designs
- Randomly assign at least one thing (but some things aren’t randomly assigned)
- The quasi-variable is the one you can’t assign
- EX: Randomly assign cancer patients or non cancer patients to psychotherapy or
control
- EX: Randomly assign men and women to social support interventions or control
Longitudinal Observational Design
- Randomly assign nothing (but follow people over time) (or look back in time= retrospective)
Types of experiments (from least causal to most causal)
- Correlational
- Longitudinal Observational
- Quasi experimental
- True experiment
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