[EDFL 2240] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (17 pages long)

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EDFL 2240
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1
Educational Research
How is educational research helpful?
o It can help teachers to
Better understand their students
Determine what curriculum is most effective
Judge which methods of pedagogy truly works
Pedagogy: the art of actually teaching
What kind of results does research provide?
o Principles: a basic explanation of the relationship between factors
o Laws: principles that have stood the test of time, and have been found to apply in many
different settings and situations
o Theories: explanations or models which tie together a bundle of principles and laws in
an attempt to explain the big picture or a major idea.
Two Major types of educational research
o Quantitative research
Discovers relationships and effects and seeks to measure and quantify them
Relies on numbers and statistics to make its case
Excellent for generalizing discoveries to large numbers of people
o Qualitative research
Discovers causes and explanations, and seeks to record personal experiences
Relies on words and stories to make its case
Exellet for exaiig a sigle perso’s life or a sall group’s experiee
o Both are valuable. They simply answer different types of questions
Some basic research terms to know
o Sample size: how many people were in this study?
o Sample selection: were the subjects picked randomly?
Random is the best method
o Bias: did this study or its author have any agenda that could influence the findings? Can
I trust this?
o Reliability: if the study was done again, would we get the same result?
o Validity: was this study done properly? Would I be justified in making major decisions
based off its findings?
Three types of research studies
o Descriptive study: seeks to describe someone or something of interest
o Experimental studies: compares multiple approaches by applying a treatment to an
experimental group, while leaving alone a control group
o Correlational studies: looks for relationships between variables
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Lecture 1
Correlation: An important warning
o CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION!!!!
Confounding variables: third variales that cause each of the first two
variables, making it look as if they cause each other
o
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