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Midterm

MCB 2000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Malic Acid, Thioester, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein

7 pages40 viewsSpring 2017

Department
Molecular and Cell Biology
Course Code
MCB 2000
Professor
Bruno
Study Guide
Midterm

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Wednesday, April 19, 2017
MCB 2000
Peer Review 11
-four main functions of fatty acids
phospholipids in membranes
triglycerides for energy storage (less weight than glycogen)
secondary messengers
covalent modification of proteins
-store water with glycogens, hydrophobic with fatty acids
Synthesis of Lipids
-only in fed state
-high I/G ratio
-lipid synthesis = gain weight
-excess caloric intake
-major source is from carbohydrates (needs carbon chains)
-Acetyl-CoA -> fatty acids (insulin present)
-no insulin present: acetyl coa -> ketone bodies (buildup of heat, severely fasted state)
-synthesized from dietary proteins
-main tissues: liver and adipose tissues
-low carb diet: lack of carb/glucose -> drop in insulin levels -> biosynthetic pathways
decrease activity -> less available energy, body must find other sources (ketone
bodies/breaking down fatty acid storage) -> extended low carb: body will not be able
to function per üsh
Fatty Acid Synthesis
-acetyl coa is starting substrate
-reducing equivalents
NADPH -> reduced amount of glycolysis with NADH and less starting material, both
processes can occur simultaneously with NADPH
!1
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Wednesday, April 19, 2017
pentose phosphate pathway
malic enzyme
-integration of glycolysis, TCA cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway
Reactions
-2 carbon (acetyl coa) units added together
-activation by conversion from acetyl coa -> malonyl coa
-decarboxylation of malonyl coa + NADPH reduction drives growth
-8 acetyl-CoA + 7 ATP + 8 ATP
Acetyl CoA
-glucose converted to pyruvate -> Acetyl CoA through PDC
-but transport out of mito by citrate, get citrate by binding OAA and acetyl CoA
-OAA is limiting (reverse reaction is favored, and with citrate synthase, drives TCA
cycle)
-production allosterically regulated by Acetyl-CoA
-pyruvate carboxylase
-once Acetyl-CoA builds up, it negatively regulates PDC and positively regulates PC
-OAA + acetyl coa -> citrate that moves out of mito and separates into OAA +
acetyl-coa where is can be used for FAS
-insulin activates PDC via dephosphorylation
-PDC has much lower Km than pyruvate -> negative feedback loop
Citrate Lyase
-Citrate lyase + ATP to cleave citrate -> acetyl-coa and OAA (cleavage not through
hydrolysis)
-Malate dehydrogenase + NADH reduces OAA -> malate
-malic enzyme converts malate -> pyruvate and NADPH
NADPH
-comes from 2 sources: pentose phosphate pathway, malic enzyme
-only in biosynthetic pathways
!2
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