[NURS 3110] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (39 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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NURS 3110
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Cultivation of Microorganisms
Objectives
Understand key components organisms require for culturing and identification leading
to treatment.
Different organisms are bred in different environments
Ex. Urinary tract vs throat
Contrast types of media regarding composition and indication for use.
Identify the array of conditions that impact the microbial proliferation.
Vegetative: living, breathing, metabolically active cell
Spores: alive but dormant
Factors Affecting Growth
Nutrients
o Carbon Source
o Nitrogen Source
o Sulfur Source
o Phosphorus Source
o Mineral sources (Mg, Fe, Ca)
o Growth Factors (Need these, but cannot make themselves)
Microbes require different nutrients
Heat/warm food can foster microbes
Time in body
Nutritional perspective of food
General purpose medium: foster growth of multiple organisms, keep them vital till
plated specifically
Synthetic medium for growth and maintenance of _____: can be designed to foster
growth of one of many organisms
Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH):
o Prefer neutral pH
Live/thrive in environment of human host
Do not thrive in human stomach bc acidic environment (denature
proteins in microorganisms, inactivating function)
If stomach pH altered, could lead to problems (H. pylori)
o A few bacteria prefer low pH (e.g.. Lactobacillus)
o Fungi prefer low pH (Yeasts, molds)
Temperature: Best at ~ 37 (~ 98 F)
Aeration or Atmosphere
Culturing Microorganisms
Types of Media
o Transport Media (Culturettes)
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Strep test
Keep organism viable for short period of time (general nutritional
components)
o Basal Media (Supplies minimal (base) growth requirements)
Same thing as general purpose media
o Enriched Media: Basal & additives to enhance growth. Promotes growth of most
organisms. E.g.. (sheep) Blood agar & Chocolate (hemolyzed blood) agar added
to general purpose media
Picky eaters
Identify specific organisms
Specific media to support growth of certain organism
o Selective Media: Allows certain bacteria to grow, inhibits others
Thayer Marti edia: hoolate / atiiotis
o Differential Media: Additives allow differentiation between organisms
o General-purpose nonselective medium: all species grow
o Selective medium: one species grows
o General-purpose nondifferential medium: all species have a similar appearance
o Differential medium: all three species grow but may show different reactions
Composition of liquid suspension in tube
Choice of Media
o Based on body site
o Based on pathogens to be isolated
Temperature
o Mostly 37C, some bacteria cultured at other temperatures
o Some organisms can live in very low or very high temperatures
o Most organisms prefer middle/optimal temperature (35-37C)
Mesophile:
Minimum: 10-15C
Maximum: 45-50C
Optimum: 35-40C
Danger zone: 45-50C, most proliferate
Psychrophile: optimal at lower temperatures
0-5C
Thermophile: optimal at higher temperatures
65-70C
Humidity
o Best at 70%
Atmosphere of Incubation
o Aerobic (most) (normal oxygen)
o Enhanced CO2, 5-10% (Haemophilus)
o Anaerobic 85% N2 (Clostridium) (low/no oxygen)
o Microaerophilic (Campylobacter)
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