POLS 1402 Midterm: POLS 1402 Mid Term Exam

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Political Science
POLS 1402
Brenna Bridwell

International Organization: official organization of multinational actors, with rules and headquarters (geographical location) Organized to solve a collective problem (Ex. Environmental issues) Girl Scouts/Girl Guides Intergovernmental Organization- is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations; distinguish by treaties; important aspect of public international law; Nongovernmental Organization- autonomous organizations that aren't gov at all, are not for profit and are formal legal entities; usually a grassroots organization with policy goals but not in governmental makeup. related group of people in a formal matter and engaging in collection action; non- commercial/non-violent; Any association of more than 1 state government UN, League of Nations, World Bank, AU, ASEAN, OPEC Collective Good- available to all members regardless of contribution (ex. cannot be charged for breathing air); a very special class of good which cannot practically be withheld from one individual consumer without withholding them from all (the “nonexcludability criterion”) and for which the marginal cost of an additional person consuming them, once they have been produced, is zero (the “nonrivalrous consumption” criterion). Ex. National Defense Functionalism- a theory of international relations that arose during the inter-War period principally from the strong concern about the obsolescence of the State as a form of social organization. Neofunctionalism: start with board mandate;theory and a strategy of regional integration - two kinds of spillover: functional and political. Functional spillover is the interconnection of various economic sectors or issue-areas, and the integration in one policy-area spilling over into others. Political spillover is the creation of supranational governance models, as far-reaching as the European Union, or as voluntary as the United Nations. The Freerider Problem: a market failure that occurs when people take advantage of being able to use a common resource, or collective good, without paying for it, as is the case when citizens of a country utilize public goods without paying their fair share in taxes.; The practice of relying on others to contribute to a collective effort *failing to participate, but still benefitting Nationalism: Loyalty towards a nation; the attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their national identity, and the actions that the members of a nation take when seeking to achieve (or sustain) self-determination. The United Nations Security Council: is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.; powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions; it is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states. Diversionary war: a war instigated by a country's leader in order to distract its population from their own domestic strife. General War: Armed conflict between major powers in which the total resources of the belligerents are employed, and the national survival of a major belligerent is in jeopardy. Civil War: a war between citizens of the same country. Limited War: a war in which the weapons used, the nations or territory involved, or the objectives pursued are restricted in some way, in particular one in which the use of nuclear weapons is avoided. Genocide: the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation. Terrorism: the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims. Maastricht Treaty: ( Treaty of European Union) EU citizenship enabled people to vote and run for office in local and European Parliament elections in the EU country in which they lived, regardless of their nationality. The treaty also provided for the introduction of a central banking system and a common currency (the euro), committed members to implementing common foreign and security policies, and called for greater cooperation on various other issues, including the environment, policing, and social policy.; reflected the serious intentions of all countries to create a common economic and monetary union. Contonou Agreement: treaty between the European Union and the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States; include equality of partners, global participation (States and non-state actors), dialogue and regionalisation.; was designed to establish a comprehensive partnership with 3 pillars: -Development cooperation -Political cooperation -Economic and trade cooperation Guerilla Warfare- an irregular form of war where small groups of civilians would use different tactics such as ambushing, sabotage, raids, petty warfare (small units ambush enemy troops to wear them down before a bigger battle), and hit and run tactics International Terrorism: terrorism that goes beyond national boundaries in terms of the methods used, the people that are targeted or the places from which the terrorists operate. Self Determination: a community
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