[PSYC 1103] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 13 pages long Study Guide!

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PSYC 1103
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1.26.17
Thursday, January 26, 2017
9:38 AM
Brief history of psychology
o Sigmund Freud: psychoanalysis
Unconscious influences on behavior
Emphasis on long-term effects of personal history
Pleasure/sex
Erotic pleasure is underneath everything, but you have to cap and cover it
Personality is the warping of that cap
Social convention = the cap that hides your erotic desires
Parents are responsible for children developing this
Parts of the Freudian Self
Id: pleasure principle, primary process thinking (devil on the shoulder)
Ego: reality principle, secondary process thinking
Superego: moral imperatives and ideals (angel on shoulder)
Pushes you and makes you feel like you aren't good enough
o William James
Functionalism
How do mental processes help us adapt?
What evolutionary processes helped us get to this point?
What's the point of love? How does it help us survive and evolve?
Focus on process, rather than structure
o Behaviorism
Only focus on studying observable behavior
John Watson, B.F. Skinner
Contingencies
What can you predict is going to happen based on what is happening in the
environment
If one event happens, I can predict there will be another event after that
I hear the dishes clattering, I know dinner is ready
Behavior-->reward
Conditioning
Research methods
o Research design
Structure of how the study is conducted
o Research tools
Instruments, techniques used to collect data
o Research analysis
Statistical techniques for extracting structure from data
o Experiments
Manipulate IV
Random assignment
Control groups
Goal: assert causality
o Correlational studies
Measure 2+ DV's
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Subject variables (things you walk in with)
Statistical control (relationship between two things)
Goal: assess relationships
o Observational studies
Measure 1+ DV's
Exploratory
No controls
Goal: identify phenomena
o Experiment: facial feedback
Hypothesis: feedback from body is the source of emotional experience
Asked participants to hold a pencil in their mouth
Teeth condition: hold pencil in teeth, which activates muscles similarly to
smiling
Lips condition: hold pencil in lips, which activates muscles similarly to frowning
Hand condition (control)
Rated a series of cartoons for funniness
You find cartoons most funny when smiling, least funny when frowning, in the middle
for hand
Position of their face impacts emotional state
A type of conditioning
o Experimental issues
External validity
Generalizability: to what extent can this be said to apply to all ___? (emotions)
Internal validity
Confounds: unintended difference between groups can potentially cause a
confound
There's almost always a potential confound, but the question is if it made
a different in the experiment
Experimenter bias: accidently impose impression on subjects
Rosenthal's maze-bright/maze-dull rats
Participant bias
Placebo effects
Eippert scan of spinal cord
Heat applied to forearm
Spinal neural activity reduced in placebo group
Double-blind studies
o Correlational study: TV and mortality
Hypothesis: TV viewing is related to risk of death
Used 8,800 healthy participants, mean age = 50 years
Followed over 7 years
Probability of dying increases with increases in TV viewing time
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