ANTH 2 Final Review Notes

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Teresa Figueroa

Anthro2FinalReview12132012Chapter 8 Marriages and FamiliesFunctions of MarriageMarriage creates the social relationships that provide for the material needs social support and enculturation of children The lengthy dependence of children on adults is a reason for the strong tie between mother and father Children generally benefit from two parental figures though only one is really necessaryMarriage bond reduces potential conflicts over sexual access by defining culturally approved sexual activity and limiting adult sexual access to certain individualsAll known societies divide up work like foodgetting and household tasks according to age and gender Marriage helps define these rights and dutiesMarriage creates new relationships between families and other kinds of kin groupsMarriage RulesExogamous Rulesoutmarriage an individual is prohibited from marrying within her or his own family or other kin group or village Due to incest taboo members of ones own nuclear family are almost everywhere prohibited as spousesEndogamous Rules inmarriage individual must marry someone in hisher own social group ie caste in Hindu India orthodox Jews races in the South during slavery nobles in ancient civilizationsstates have the effect of maintaining social barriers between groups of people with different social ranks Reduces social contactsinteractions between individuals of different ranks over time reinforces ties within the endogamous groups and decreases interactions between the groupsSymbolically expressesstrengthens the exclusiveness of the endogamous group by preventing its contamination by outsidersDe facto endogamy although no formal rules or laws require inmarriage most people marry people like themselvesHow many spousesPolygamy plural spouses types includepolygynyone man multiple wives most commonpolyandryone wife multiple husbands raregroup marriageseveral womenmen allowed to be married simultaneously to one another PolygynyFormerly allowed by 70 of societies Result of shortage of adult males Disparity in the age of marriage might contribute to the frequency of polygyny Men have many benefits from plural wives Sociallystatus directly related to size of household household status acquire new affines for supportEconomically Larger workforce in pastoral settingsFemales have sureness that they will require a husband as well as ensure her children are supportedCommon problemrivalry between wives and favoritismPolyandryFemale infanticidedecreased number of women available for marriageHappens when there is an insufficiency of a familys land to support all of its heirs Sharing wives preserves family property for maleWife has multiple husbands to work for herMarital AlliancesYanomamo Case StudyHorticulture and hunting tribe of the Amazon rain forestFeared attacks by enemies but frequently went on raids of enemies to capure women and resources Necessary to obtain military alliances and allies Intermarriagekey strategy in creatingmaintaining alliancesWhen men wanted to form alliance took part in tradeIf trade went successful then offered alliance feastIf feast went successful men of villages would trade female relatives sisters Illustrate how intermarriage creates bonds and establishes important political relationships between villages Marital Exchanges Bridewealth Widespread custom that requires a manrelatives transfer wealth to relatives of his bride Most common of all marital exchangesMost common right a man and relatives acquire when they transfer bridewealth is rights over the womans children Womans main duty to husband is to provide him with childrenIf incapable must return bridewealth BrideserviceCustom in which a husband is required to spend a period of time working for the family of his brideSecond most common form of marital exchangeSometimes used to reduce the amount of bridewealth ownedDowryFamily of a woman transfers a portion of its own wealth or property to the woman their daughter andor toher husband and his familyNot simply the opposite of the bridewealthwoman and family do not acquire marital rights over husband when they provide dowry bride and husband receive property when they marry rather than when brides parents die sometimes dowry is the share of a womans inheritance that she takes into her marriage for the use of her new family
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