42 Pages
Unlock Document

University of California - Santa Barbara

Lecture 1: Communication 1 1/18/13 Communication is:  An exchange of meaningful symbols - you can’t exchange meaning without symbols which could be words, or showing, gestures, videos, etc.  A process - an ongoing, systematic activity  Contextual – interpersonal dyads, groups, media, etc. Lecture 2: Contextual Levels of Communication 8/12/2013 11:16:00 AM Contextual Levels:  Intrapersonal  Interpersonal  Intergroup/Intercultural  Small Group  Organization  Public  Mass Researchers focus particularly on different aspects of communication – you won’t get someone who studies everything all at once. Intrapersonal – communication within a person  ex. writing a to-do list, motivation “you can do it”, talking to yourself, writing a diary, etc.  thinking about other people, and processing information  some topics studied: making attributions, forming impressions Interpersonal – communication between people (dyad)  Face-to-face or point-to-point (texting, phone, facebook, etc.)  Involves self-disclosure, relational development/intimacy  Some topics studies: making friends, becoming close/falling apart, conflict, nonverbal messages Intergroup/Intercultural - communication between members of different groups or cultures  Our interactions and identities are influenced by group memberships – ex. I go to UCSB, I’m on the surf team, etc.  Some topics studied: ingroup/outgroup communication (ex in a relationship vs. not in a relationship), language, ethnicity, gender, age group comm Small Group – interaction among three or more people  Pursuing common goal – social or task. ex business project, planning a party, etc.  Interact as a group  Some topics studied: group decision making (ex juries, work teams), group dynamics, peer pressure Organizational – comm among members of organization (or between different organizations)  Formal organization structure – official with a structure  Formal and informal networks, rules, norms  Some topics studied: leadership, org culture, conversation networks, collaboration Public – 1 or a few individuals speaking to an audience – hence “public speaking”  face to face but with a distance  relatively one-way  some topics studied: rhetorical devices used in speeches, imagery in pop culture Mass – messages disseminated on large scale  Mediated – print or electronic  Mass media = entertainment industry – tvs, movies, etc  Typically professional communicators  less immediate feedback – you don’t talk back to your TV while you’re watching a TV show  some topics studied: effects of TV on behavior/attitudes, role of media in society Communication happens at multiple contextual levels. Models of Communication  What is a model? o Abstract representation of “the real thing” – ex models of the solar system o Includes major elements and focuses on certain characteristics  Why model communication? o to help visualize and organize info clearly o to help make predictions about behavior o to suggest new ideas for understanding comm  Source -> Message -> Receiver = starting point but DOESN’T actually work – but lets us think about what a good model would be Modeling Communication  A good model ideally should include: o Key elements of communication  People (source/receiver), message/symbol, channel, noise, feedback, context o Important characteristics of communication  Cognitive processes: encoding, decoding, transmitting  Transactional qualities: exchange, interdependence, irreversibility o How everything fits together o BUT most models limit their focus Lecture 3: Verbal Communication 8/12/2013 11:16:00 AM Linear Models  Refer to READER  Show comm as largely one-way  No feedback or transactional qualities  Went out of favor  Allow for “noise” disruption --- when you are listening to the radio and you go under the bridge, you lose service Interaction/Process Models  Schramm – circle model = feedback  Berlo’s Model  Both include feedback and emphasize cognitive processes (encoding and decoding) Transactional Models  Feedback AND also “transactional” qualities: exchange, interdependence, irreversibility  No cognitive processing, no focus on symbols/messages So, RE Models: Each has a different focus. NO one model represents all aspects well. Utility/usefulness/how good the model actually is depends on the communication behaviors being analyzed VERBAL COMMUNICATION Important Features of Language  Language is rule-governed  Language is capable of displacement  Meaning of symbols/words are arbitrary – we know a dog as a fluffy four-legged thing but it could mean something completely different in a different language o Human-made conventions Language and Meaning  The Referential Function – we use language to refer to things and ideas o We categorize things and label them – ex. “peach” is a fruit, fuzzy, round o Group things with similar characteristics  The Triange of Meaning Thought (reference) America, 4 thof July, etc. / \ Symbol (Word) -------- Object (referent) “flag” picture of flag  We must recognize different kinds of meaning o One word has different meanings - Ex. the word “ROCK” – tons of meanings – music, cocaine, “you rock”, an actual rock like granite  What helps us interpret its meaning? = context, knowledge, experience, relationship, etc. o Also vice versa - Lots of synonyms for the same word – “man” – male, dude, “I”, sir, guy o Every word/phrase has two basic types of meaning:  denotative – explicit, agreed-upon meaning (dictionaryish); can have more that one denotation (ex. rock has more than one); denotative meaning typically widely shared among speakers of the same language – BUT can also have idiosyncratic denotations (only one person uses it in a certain way, or in small groups ex. codewords between a couple)  connotative – emotional, evaluative connections to a word  can have idiosyncratic and/or shared connotations too Lecture 4: Verbal and Nonverbal Communication 8/12/2013 11:16:00 AM Every word (or phrase) has two basic types of meaning – connotative and denotative  Denotative = dictionary definition, explicit, agreed upon meaning – widely shared among speakers of the same language o Can have more than one denotation o Can also have idiosyncratic denotations  Connotative = emotional, evaluative connections to a word o Can have idiosyncratic and/or shared connotations too Importance of Connotations  Compare “house” vs “home” o Denotatively – house and home mean the same thing o Connotatively – house is more neutral like a structure or building; home is connected with the personal side, the people and the relationships you have with them – more positive  Government “spending” vs “investment”  “pro choice” versus “pro abortion” or “pro life” versus “anti abortion” – “life” has positive connotations  “God terms” – terms or symbols with widespread positive connotations – ex. “freedom” or “hope”  “Devil terms” – terms or symbols with widespread negative connotations – ex. profanities or slurs Effects of Language  language can signal our group identities – age, culture, gender, social status, etc.  “speech accommodation” – adjusting our language use with others based on who we’re talking to – can shift toward or away from the other person ex. you talk differently to your grandparents than you do to your friends, you try to speak more professionally during a job interview than normal o adjustment usually based on group identity o we want acceptance and establish belonging – “us” o used to distinguish one’s group or power from “them”  Language influences judgments of people – perceptions of traits, abilities, etc. o EX – equivocal language – we are intentionally imprecise in the words we choose  Your friend asks “did you like your present?” but you hated it – and you say something like “it was really interesting” or “that was so thoughtful!”  Helps to manage “face” for self and other o EX – language “power”  “powerless” language – use lots of hedges, hesitations, intensifiers, tag questions, disclaimers  “powerful” language – fluent, direct, and doesn’t use any of the above “powerless” markers o Studies show:  the use of powerful language leads to higher ratings on a bunch of things ex competence, dynamism, social/economic status, message effectiveness and trustworthiness  Use of powerless language = lower ratings on above, but often seen as more likeable and good-natured NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Relationship to verbal comm  Common misperception that “truth” is in the nonverbal  Nonverbal comm can complement verbal or substitute for verbal or regulate verbal or contradict verbal Importance of Nonverbals  Demonstrate “immediacy” – to be present, there, in the moment – ex. head nodding, eye contact, leaning into the person talking, smiling, etc  Gauges others’ reactions/feedback Nonverbal Codes – ways of sending nonverbal messages  Paralanguage (paralinguistics) – vocalizations (crying laughing grunting), voice qualities (pitch and volume, rate and fluency, quality – resonance and nasality, accent – pronunciation, intonation) Lecture 5: Nonverbal Comm. Cont + Studying Comm as a Science 8/12/2013 11:16:00 AM Nonverbal Codes cont.  Personal appearance o Body displays – hair color and style, piercing, etc. o Clothing and accessories – can signal authority, legitimacy, belonging, etc.  Oculesics – eye contact/gaze o Avoidance often taken as dishonesty, insincerity, discomfort o Eye contact can signal confidence, immediacy and can increase perceptions of attractiveness  Kinesics – movement and gestures o Illustrators – used to complement the verbal o Emblems – gesture that has a beginning and an end and has almost a dictionary-like meaning – ex. the hand signal for OK, thumbs up for good – great for substituting o Affect displays – how you feel – ex. when you’re angry you clench your fists o Adapters – you’re nervous so you tie your hair up then take it out, do it again, etc – you have to do something to keep yourself moving  Proxemics – space, distance, territory o Interpersonal distances – when you’re at a public gathering you stand farther away from people than when you’re with a group of close friends o Claiming our space  Chronemics – the use of time – you show up late to somewhere, which may show that you don’t care; responsiveness ex how quickly do you text someone back or call someone back  Haptics – the use of touch – positive affect, control, ritual ex. the handshake Studying Communication as a Science At UCSB  We seek understanding of generalized patterns of communication variables – attitudes, behaviors, etc. o What is related to what – is x related to y?  Ex. culture is related to nonverbal distance o What causes what  Ex. eye contact increases perception of attractiveness The Scientific Method  Empirical observation – collect data, making systematic observations and measurements  Logical reasoning – make consistent, rational inferences from data; construct good theories/models  “objectivity” – remove/control personal bias (to be objective is to be able to separate yourself personally from what you’re studying), use standardized set of rules and procedures  public dialogue – findings reported to and reviewed by scientific community Three Major Social Science Research Methods  Content Analysis – the systematic, quantitative analysis of content of messages o Purposes: describes media (or other comm) content – ex. how often are FB disclosures highly personal vs. surface-level – assess image of particular group in media ex. how are fathers sterotyped in TV shows o Issues to consider  Need representative sample (of media messages)  Need clear, specific definitions of content variables – ex. what is a personal disclosure on FB?  Limitations – can only describe content – no information about why content is that way, or the effects of it on audiences, etc.  Survey Research – ask people what they think or do; can use telephone, mail, internet, face-to-face o Purposes: identify attitudes/behaviors in population, examine relationships between attitudes/behaviors, etc.  Experimental Research Lecture 6: Studying Comm as a Science cont. 8/12/2013 11:16:00 AM Three Major Social Science Research Methods  Content analysis  Survey Research – asking people what they think about something, how do they do, how do they feel, what are their opinions, etc o Telephone, mail, internet, face to face o Purposes:  Identify attitudes/behaviors in population  Examine relationships between attitudes/behaviors o Issues to consider  Need representative sample of participants  Need good questions o Limitations of surveys:  Reliance on self-reports – people may over or under exaggerate  Cannot make causal conclusions  2 variables may be related – more twitter use, more connected  but this doesn’t mean that using Twitter makes you feel more connected  Experimental Research o Purpose:  draw causal conclusions  Ex. does powerful vs powerless language on Twitter influence how believable people think is the info? o Manipulate causal variable(s) – independent variable  Ex. manipulate “power” of language in tweets o Control everything else – same content, format, etc. o Measure effect/outcome – dependent variable  Ex. believability of information o Issues to consider  Need random assignment  Randomly divide participants into groups  Need good manipulation o Limitations of Experiments  Limited participant sample  Artificial setting – leading to poor “external validity” – it’s hard to generalize results beyond participants and lab environment INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Perception Processes  Intrapersonal comm involves “making sense” mentally of people/world  Three cognitive processes: o Attention  We are selective about what we perceive  There are internal factors affecting attention:  Physiological filters ex. how tired you are, being hungry, distracted – our physical state, limitation of our senses  Psychological filters – motivation or interest; past experience or expectations ex. you pay attention more in the classes you like  And there are external factors affecting attention:  Salience: stimulus stands out from others – visual contrast, sound, movement, etc.  Vividness: stimulus provokes emotional response o Organization  We structure our perceptions  Proximity: we perceive separate stimuli as related if close to each other  Similarity: we perceive stimuli as related if similar to each other  Closure: we see incomplete patterns as complete  Figure ground: we perceive images as having an object (figure) and background (ground) o Interpretation  We evaluate our perceptions  Interpret, make sense, and draw conclusions Lecture 7 8/12/2013 11:16:00 AM Perceiving the Social World  How do we understand ourselves and each other? o We simplify the complex info we perceive o Biases influence our conclusions  Two research areas we’ll explore… o Forming impressions o Making attributions  Impression Formation: o The way we combine information to get a general “sense” of a person o Traits, personality they have o Come to a general sense of the person very early o Attend to some info, not all o We don’t pay attention to all the data, only things that draw our attention o Organize info into a weighted average  What Gets the Greatest Weight? o Manipulate key thing o Info about stable traits  If it is a stable trait and not an ephemeral trait, you’ll credit it more o Info from a credible source o Info we receive first creates the overall first impression (usually) o o Info about extreme or unusual behavior o o Info about negative traits o o Info about “central” traits  § Anchor traits for anything else, you change that one, changes everything else  § Example: Person A (intelligent, skillful, industrious, warm, determined, practical, cautious)  § Example: Person B (intelligent, skillful, industrious, cold, determined, practical, cautious)  · Biases in Impression Formation o o Bias for something o o Halo Effect  § Initial perceptions influence how we perceive later information (e.g., attractiveness ca create positive “halo”) o o Contrast Effect  § Impressions influenced by what just came beforehand  ú (e.g., “a tough act to follow”) o o Stereotyping  § Assume person has certain traits or behaviors because of group membership  § Why?  ú Normal to categorize the world, to divide into “us” and “them”  ú See where one fits in  ú Minimizes cognitive “work” o o Managing the self: “BIRG” and “CORF” o § BIRG: Bask In Reflected Glory o § CORF: Cut Off Reflected Failure  · Attribution Processes: o o The way we assign explanations for people’s behavior  § When we notice behavior, we can attribute it either to internal or external causes  ú Internal attribution: we see it as caused by the person/self; within the person’s control  ú External attribution: we see it as caused by the situation or other factors outside the person’s control  § How do we decide?  ú Compare person’s behavior to others and to knowledge of person’s past behavior  · Biases in Attribution o o Fundamental Attribution Error  § Tendency to assume others behaviors are caused by internal factors o o The Self-Serving Bias  § Our positive outcomes (successes) à due to internal factors  § Our negative outcomes (failures) à due to situation (external) factors Interpersonal Communication  · Characteristics: o Focus is on interaction between two people o Most transactional context  · The Dual Level of IP Messages: o Content level (meaning)  The “what” of the message  Easiest to convey verbally o Relational level  Info about how interactants feel about themselves & each other in the rel Lecture 8: Interpersonal Comm cont. 8/12/2013 11:16:00 AM Characteristics  The dual level of IP messages: o Content level – the “what” of the message; easiest to convey verbally o Relational level – info about how interactants feel about themselves and each other in the rel; can be conveyed verbally or nonverbally – more often nonverbally  Often expressed ambiguously – you’re not going to come out and say “I love you” to someone you just met because you’re scared  Can be consistent or inconsistent with content level o The question – which level do you respond to?  Attraction o What brings us together?  Physical attractiveness  Similarity  Proximity  Reducing uncertainty o We attempt to get info about the other person to reduce uncertainty  Passively – observing the other  Actively – seek info from a third party  Interactively – talk to the other  - reducing uncertainty (ex finding similarities) increases liking  Self disclosure o Deliberately revealing info about oneself o Two dimensions of disclosure  Breadth of information ex. GE classes expose a lot of variety to your life  More variety = more breadth  Depth of information – more specified  Increasing levels of depth: ritualized info/social roles, facts unique to self, opinions/attitudes, deep feelings/core values  More personal = more depth o Functions of self disclosure  Impression management  Intimacy management  Reciprocity  Catharsis  Self-clarification/validation o Relational Stages  Knapp’s Staircase Model  Differences in communication at each stage  Stages of coming together  Initiating and experimenting (exploratory) o Initial display of self, small talk, audition  Intensifying o Real disclosures, nicknames, “we” pronouns, personal idioms, words/tokens of affection  Integrating o Cultivate opinions as couple, others treat you as couple, common property, speak alike, sense of obligation/identity together  Bonding o Public ritual (ex marriage), formal binding, social and institutional support  Movement thru stages  Motivated by rewards and costs o Does not have to be linear – people can jump around  Relational Dialectics Perspective o Argues that relationships do NOT progress in stages o Always have contradictory feelings in relationships  Autonomy vs. connection (independent person vs. being one with another person)  Openness vs closeness (want to be private but also want to tell your partner everything)  Predictability vs novelty (you want predictability but you also want surprise) o Relational comm is dynamic process of dealing with these tensions Lecture 9: Interpersonal Conflict 8/12/2013 11:16:00 AM Conflict occurs when you have perceived incompatible goals, perceived scare resources Conflict styles  Escapist styles – want to prevent or get away from conflict o Conflict avoidance – goal is to stay away from conflict entirely; ignores own needs and others needs  Avoidance tasks: physical avoidance, changing the subject, denial “no I’m not mad”, postponement “we’ll talk about this later”, resorting to formal rules, controlling the process, gunnysacking, sarcasm o Conflict accommodation – goal is to let other have his/her way; appease; shows some concern for the other, but you just want to get out of it  Tactics: openly giving in, passive agreement  Passive Aggression – goal is to express discontent, but not openly o Tactics: keep main grievance to self, send subtle, indirect negative messages  Challenging/Competitive style – goal is I win/you lose o Concern is mostly with self o Competitive tactics: assertiveness, direct aggression, hostility, presumptive attribution, threat or ulti
More Less

Related notes for COMM 1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.