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Study Guide

ESS 3 Study Guide - Spring 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Liver, Protein, Obesity


Department
Exercise & Sport Studies
Course Code
ESS 3
Professor
Slade
Study Guide
Midterm

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ESS 3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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Science of nutrition
Nutrition: the study of dietary intake and behavior
Nutrients and constituents in food including their use in the body and influence on
human health
Nutrients: chemical substances that provide nourishment necessary for growth and the
maintenance of proper body functioning
Essential nutrients: Nutrients that the body cannot produce or produce in sufficient
amounts to meet the body’s needs
must be supplied through the diet
Nonessential nutrients: nutrients that are present in food but not required in our diet
Nutrients that can be manufactured by the body but can still have vital roles
Examples: cholesterol, certain amino acids
The quantity and variety of nutrients in foods can promote health or increase risk of
disease
Six classes of nutrients necessary for the body to function
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats (lipids)
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
Macronutrients
Macronutrients yield energy
Carbohydrates, fat (lipids), protein
Fiber comes from carbohydrates
Helps with weight maintenance, cholesterol levels, gastrointestinal system
Fats (lipids) required for synthesis of hormones
Proteins are important for structural and fluid balance in the body
Breakdown of nutrients provide energy
Energy is the capacity to do work
All bodily processes require energy
Energy in food is measured as kilocalories
Kilocalorie (kcal) = 1000 calories
Calorie = kcal = 1000 calories
Kcals are listed as “calories” on food labels
Energy-yielding nutrients
Macronutrients : source of kcalories
Carbohydrates = 4 kcal/g
Protein = 4 kcal/g
Fat = 9 kcal/g
Higher energy density
Alcohol = -7 kcal/g
Lower energy density foods contribute to weight loss
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Fat is the most energy dense macronutrient
Micronutrients
Micronutrients do not yield energy
Vitamins, minerals
Human body needs small amount
Water and minerals do not yield energy
Water is needed in large amounts
Controls body temperature and is involved in many chemical reactions
From foods to nutrients in our body
Process of digestion: breaks down and extracts macronutrients, micronutrients, and
phytochemicals from food
Malnutrition
Inadequate, excessive, or unbalanced nutrient intake can result in malnutrition
Undernutrition: nutrient deficiency
Overnutrition: obesity
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
Recommended daily levels of intake that meet nutrient needs of healthy people
Promotes health and reduces disease
Four values of nutrient intakes
EAR: estimated average requirements
RDA: recommended dietary allowances
Adequate intake of nutrients in individuals
AI: adequate intake
Assesses nutrient adequacy when no RDA is fat
UL: tolerable upper intake levels
Used to assess likelihood of nutrient excess
Acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR)
Carbohydrates : 45% - 65% total calories
225 - 325 grams for 2000 calorie diet
Protein : 10% - 35% total calories
50-175 grams for 2000 calorie diet
Fat: 20% - 35% total calories
44 - 78 grams for 2000 calorie diet
Established energy requirement (EER)
Average dietary intake to maintain energy balance
Healthy body weight and physical activity
No upper level
Credible nutrition information
Identifying nutrition experts
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