HIST 2B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Mongols In China, Genghis Khan, Pope Gregory Vii

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8 Feb 2017
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History 2B Documents
1. Marie de France, the Lay of Le Fresne
Stearns Documents
Ch. 8 Religion and State in Islam and Christianity
A MUSLIM VIEW: NIZAM AL-MULK
Nizam al-Mulk was a Persian bureaucrat who served sultans for the Seljuk Turks
11th century treatis, king pleasing
tells how to rule, how to gain power, flattery
caliph (head of caliphate)
o in charge of spiritual and earthly matters (temporal)
o oversee appointees; if they’re incompetent- admonish or punish them
o build and maintain infrastructure
Spiritual matters
o No heretics, invites elders (ulema) to talk about the Quran
Interpret correct understanding of Quran
Emperor and Pope
Pope Gregory VII vs. Emperor Henry IV
o Late 11th century
Debate who gets to appoint bishops
Does the Emperor have spiritual authority?
Two swords- power over spiritual and temporal matters
o Have to be separated
o Pope has authority to give or take way the sword the emperor
Papacy influence grew significantly
Women in Islam, Byzantine Empire, and Western Europe
Islam
Quran men are responsible for women
Societies are patriarchal
Divorce- men decide over women’s decisions, women have the right to divorce
Inheritance- men inherit 2x
Men and women are spiritually equal, souls are equal but not socially
Women can’t be appointed as the qadi (judge)
Byzantine Empire- marriage contract
11-12th century
Marriage, inheritance, is it a patriarchy?
Inheritance of women in Byzantine empire
If the husband dies before the wife and there are children, she will get all her husband’s
property and become the head of the household to support children
No children, ¼ part shall be secured in settlement
Wife dies and no children, husband receives, ¼ part of wife’s portion
Social safety net
Islam inheritance
Son gets twice, male is preferred
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2 daughters and no sons- 2/3 of estate
widow
Marriage/Divorce
men are responsible for women, admonish her, withhold sex, allowed to beat her
divorce
o 4 month waiting period
o wait 3 menstrual cycles to many again
o man’s control, progeny
o no child, woman has say in divorce
Spiritual equality
equal souls, treat them with respect
women created from rib
equality of believers
more women in hell-tend toward sin
Social equality
men are in control or have authority
different qualities, men have leadership
quadi (judge) must be male
Byzantine Empire
marriage- has to be consented by families
age 15- boy, age 13- girl
contract, 3 witnesses
Anna Comnena- historian; wrote about her grandmother; granddaughter of Emperor Alexius I
talking about her grandmother
father handled war; grandmother managed state
aristocratic Byzantine women have a bigger role in Byzantine Empire; have powerful
influence
o contrasts with women with Islam because Allah gave both sexes different
attributes
Bertran de Born, “The Joys of War”
knight in the service of the bishop in southern France
famous chivalric poets of love
12th century France
o rejoices in seeing armed knights, castles assailed
o masculinity is measured through bravery and fighting
o noble lord leads the attack, inspires men
o men would rather die than give up
o pleasures seeing the enemy fall and become helpless, crying for mercy
o never cease to fight
shows the brutality of knights and warrior elite in Crusades
The Crusade of Richard I- late 12th century
Written by Richard of the Holy Trinity, served King Richard as knight during the crusade
Feudal military values
Subject is King Richard as a noble warrior. Fought in the Third Crusade
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How does the author, Richard of the Holy Trinity, portray Richard I?
o Caring king, encourages young warriors of reward
o Warrior- wound a Turk to death by piercing him through the chest with his
crossbow
o Tells army to treat prisoners with respect
In what ways does the author show some admiration for the enemy?
o Describes the Turks as fighting with wonderful valor and warlike excellence
o Prowess in war; great defenders and warriors
o Show good morale after surrendering; part of chivalry
o Wear splendid clothes after the truce
In what ways does he condemn the enemy?
o No respect for their religion
o Pagan peoples with superstitious rites and idolatry
Taking the last couple of paragraphs into account, assess the reliability of the author.
o Biased views on Islam. Devout in Christianity from sorrowing over the
overthrown altars caused by the Turks
o Believes Muslims are evil for casting out the symbols of redemption
o Replace Christian symbols with images of Muhammad; they don’t have images
o Skeptical account
Beh-ed Din
Muslim official of Jerusalem writes of the Crusade of Richard of the Holy Trinity
King of France set out for Tyre
Why does the King of France go to Tyre? What gifts does the Sultan send him?
o King of France goes to Tyre to talk negotiate prisoners that were captured by the
Sultan and see the true cross of the Crucifixion (relics)
o Sultan sent gifts of rich presents, perfumes, and fine raiment
The English king referred to here is Richard I. How does he come across in this account,
as opposed to in the "Crusade of Richard I"
o Treacherous; not chivalrous
o Richard I is perceived as cruel for not honoring his word on the treaty and
massacred the Muslim prisoners. Acts like a betrayer by taking the money and the
French prisoners in exchange for killing the Muslim prisoners
o Not reliable
MONGOLS IN CHINA: LI CHIH-CH’ANG AND THE SECRET HISTORY OFTHE
MONGOLS
Li Chih-Ch’ang- Written by a Taoist emissary about the Mongol invasion of China
o Early 13th century
How are they ruled?
o Chingis Khan appointed Muslim agents to govern each city
How do they make their livelihood?
o All herdsman and hunters; obedient to orders
What are their views on men and women?
o Woman can marry another man if husband becomes poor, can marry again if
husband is gone for a journey and does not come back in 3 months
o Women have beards and moustaches
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