Human Sexuality Midterm Review Notes.docx

52 Pages
Unlock Document

SOC 152A
Mark Baldwin

Midterm Review 1 1/24/2012 9:06:00 PM  5 short answer questions (answer 4 out of 5… choose which one to omit)  bullet points, labeled diagrams, lists OKAY  6 multiple choice (answer all)  30 points overall  bullet points, labeled diagrams, lists OKAY  PRINT ANATOMY CHARTS  Chapter 2 (Women’s Bodies)  Vagina o Outermost portion of reproductive tract o Vaginal wall = highly elastic  Three layers  Mucosa  Intermediate muscular  Fimbro-elastic  Cervix o Back of vagina (bottom/small end of uterus o Structure/function  Separates uterus from vagina  Holds the fetus in the uterus until delivery o The O’s  Opening of cervix  Uterus o Womb o Within the pelvic cavity o Structure  Small, hollow, upside down-pear shaped  Three layers  Endometrium  Myometrium  Perimetrium  Function  Carries the developing fetus until term o READ PAGES 38-39 ABOUT CANCERS  Oviducts (fallopian tubes) o Forms pathway between uterus and left and right ovaries  Does not make direct contact with ovaries o Structure  ~4 inches long  about diameter of spaghetti o Function  where fertilization takes place  fimbria o location  ovary side of each oviduct o structure  fingerlike projections of the oviducts o function  “catch” ovum  cilia o location  inside oviduct o structure  small hair like structures o function  movement propels ovum from each ovary to the uterus  ovaries o located on either side of the uterus o structure  egg-shaped (1-1.5 inches) paired organs o functions  release mature ovum in ovulation  production and secretion of sex hormones (table 2.1 on pg. 43)  follicle o location  many in each ovary o structure/function  site of egg development  ova (plural) ovum (singular) o eggs o mature female gamete prior to or just following fertilization o ovulation: egg released from ovary  menstruation o vaginal discharge of endometrial tissue and blood (innermost layer) o experience at approx.. monthly intervals during fertile years  varies greatly – most cycles lasting between 24 and 32 days o attitudes toward menstruation (see box 2.4 on pg. 46) o tampons, pads, and alternatives on pg. 47-48 o menstrual cycle has 3 phases  menstrual phase: menstrual flow is occurring (woman is on her period)  preovulatory phase: end of menstruation to ovulation (end of period up until ovulation)  postovulatory phase: ovulation to menstruation o most likely to get pregnant in-between preovulatory and postovulatory phases o menstrual problems  nausea, headaches  menstrual cramps: sharp paints/dull aches within lower abdomen or pelvis (myometrium)  dysmenorrhea: painful menstruation  severe enough to limit a woman’s activities (pg. 51)  READ ABOUT PMS PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (pgs.51- 53)  Breast cancer o 180,000 American women diagnosed each year o 13.2% American women will develop the disease o mastectomy: surgical removal of the affected breast o risk of breast cancer  genes, age, reproductive history, alcohol, obesity, exercise, medical history, hormones o early detection is important  periodic breast exams  mammography  see 2.6 on pg. 59 about breast self-examination o treatments and its effects on an active sex life on pg. 58-60  Men’s Bodies (Chapter 3)  Read pg. 69 o Balanitis, phimosis, paraphimosis, Peyronie’s disease, and penile cancer  Diagrams o Glans penis (head) o Corpus cavernosum (outside sections of shaft) o Corpus spongiosum (middle section of shaft)  Testicles (3.10 on pg. 75) o In scrotum o Structure  Twin egg-shaped structures o Function (similar to women)  Produce sperm  Secrete sex hormones  Seminiferous tubules o Located inside each testicle o Structure  Convoluted microscopic tubes o Function  Production of sperm (spermatogenesis)  Sperm o Produced in seminiferous tubules o Structure  Head  Contains genetic info  Tail  Motility o Function  Fertilization of the ovum (egg) o Each man produced 100 million sperm per day  Interstitial cells o Between seminiferous tubules in testis o Function  Secrete sex hormones  Epididymis o One on each testicle (little hat on each testicle) o Structure  Convoluted tube o Function  Site of sperm maturation and storage  Vas deferens (aka vas) o Location  In between the epididymis and the ejaculatory duct o Structure  Tube o Function  Transport and storage of mature sperm from epididymis  ejaculatory duct  Ejaculatory duct o Location/structure  Formed by the junction of the vas and duct of seminal vesicle o Function  Empties into the urethra within the prostate  Prostate gland o Location  Located at base of bladder that surrounds the urethra o Structure  Single gland slightly larger than walnut o Function  Prostate secretions (cloudy, alkaline fluid) are a major component of semen o Read 3.3 and 3.4 on disorders of the testicles and prostate gland (pgs. 77 and 78)  Seminal vesicles o Location  Situated to either side of the prostate (behind the bladder) o Structure  Two glands o Function  NOT storage areas for sperm  Add own secretion  Bulbourethral glands and precum (cowper’s glands) o Location  Near root of penis (below prostate gland) o Structure  2 pea-sized glands o function  their secretions (often called pre-cum) are excreted prior to ejaculation (can get women pregnant if semen stuck in urethra… can get pushed out by precum)  semen o thick, cloudy, off white liquid o expelled from male urethra at ejaculation o sperm = 1% volume of semen  99% combination of fluids secreted by  prostate (~30%) and the seminal vesicles (~70%) o KNOW DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EMISSION, EJACULATION, AND ORGASM (pgs. 80-81)  Sex hormones in men o Androgens  Mainly testosterone  Promotes expression of male typical gender traits  Responsible for maintaining sex drive in men o Estrogens  Required for male fertility o Progestins  Necessary for proper functioning of androgens and estrogens within the male body o NOTE: females also have these sex hormones, but function differently  Chapter 5 – Attraction, Sexual Arousal, Response  Fantasy: Common mode of sexual arousal o An imagined experience, sexual or otherwise (ex: mentally undressing classmates during boring lecture) o M engage in sexual fantasy more than W o Content of sexual fantasies varies greatly o Gender differences in fantasies (5.9 pg. 144)  W fantasized about more than M = getting married  M more adventurous in fantasies  W fantasize about behaviors that they have already engaged in, while M fantasize about activities that they have never done (ex: threesome)  Gay/lesbians fantasies are similar to straight fantasies o M and W fantasies tend to be consistent with stereotypes about M and W sexuality  M = more dominant in sex acts  W = fantasize about taking passive role o People who enjoy sexual fantasies without feelings of guilt have a more satisfying sex life  NOT UNHEALTHY for W to have sexual fantasies about rape/sexual coercion because W IS IN CHARGE and can end it when she wants… unlike real sexual assault  Arousal o M and W aroused by partners’ faces o M aroused (physically and genitally) by erotic images associated with sexual orientation  W aroused physically by erotic images of both W and M (regardless is straight or gay) o Sexual arousal influenced other forms of arousal  Misattribution of arousal: nonsexual arousal  arousal (ex: fear, excitement… roller coaster study pg. 147)  Not entirely conclusive o Hormones influence sexual arousability  Do biological factors influence sexual arousal?  Testosterone  No short term influence on arousal in M  Sexual activity triggers testosterone  High testosterone does not trigger an increase in sexual desire  Testosterone influence arousability in adult M  M can be hypogonadal: producing insufficient levels of sex hormones ( lower sexual desire/activity)  Aphrodisiacs in box 5.4 pg. 149  What do they do?  Don’t need to know full detail o Conditioning may influence arousal  Classical/pavlovian conditioning: form of learning in which novel stimulus is linked with a pre-existing reflex  Used to explain development of fetishes/unusual sexual behavior  Guy watching law and order SVU, decides to masturbate  show about rape… slowly develops fetish for rape because he corresponds masturbation with rape subconsciously  Ex in book: piggy banks and naked women o Sexual arousal follows a response cycle (pg. 151 figure 5.12)  Excitement phase  Response in W  Swelling/opening/deepening in color of labia minora/vaginal wall (vasocongestion)  Vaginal lubrication  Erection of clitoris and nipples  Swelling of breasts, uterus swells and elevates  Increased HR  Response in M  Erection of penis (takes place in under a minute (10 seconds!)  Elevation of testicles  Nipples become erect  Duration of excitement phase varies (1 min – 1 hr. +)  Plateau Phase  Arousal is maintained (lasts 1 min – several hours)  Response in W  Thickening/tightening of walls of outer third of vagina  Vaginal canal narrows  Glans of clitoris goes under clitoral hood  Breasts swell – specifically areolae  “sex flush” and myotonia (muscle tension)  response in M  pre-cum secretions from bulbourethral (Cowper’s) glands  increased myotonia (muscle tension)  Orgasm  Climax of sexual arousal  Orgasm: intense, pleasurable sensation at sexual climax and physiological process that accompany them o Felt as a brief series of muscle contractions o Respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure peak  In M: orgasm followed by 2 genital events o Emission: semen is loaded into urethra o Ejaculation: semen is expelled (W may ejaculate also – box 5.5 pg. 154)  Multiple orgasms o Series of orgasm, and in between person descends only to plateau phase o Much more common in W than M  Resolution Phase  Arousal subsides  Physiological signs reverse  Psychological arousal subsides  Full resolution takes 15 minutes  Look at figure 5.15 pg. 157 about patterns of sexual response  Refractory Period  Period of time after a M orgasms, during which further sexual stimulation does not lead to a renewed erection or a second orgasm  Typically lasts 30-90 minutes (depending on age… more age = longer period)  Absolute vs. relative refractory period o Absolute: no matter what happens, you will not get another erection or orgasm o Relative: maybe 1 million supermodels coming into your bedroom will help you get an erection again  Sexual Behavior (Chapter 6)  Masturbation: sexual self stimulation o Some include manual stimulation of a partner  There are many different attitudes toward masturbation (pgs. 169- 170)  Demographic factors influence masturbation (figure 6.1 on pg. 167)  Average woman o More likely to experience orgasm from masturbating than through p/v sex  W tend to take more time to reach orgasm than M through masturbation  Specific techniques pg. 168  Gay people o Masturbate more than heterosexuals o Report greater pleasure from masturbation  Sexuality across the lifespan (Chapter 10)  Childhood: a period of sexual innocence? o Study of childhood sexuality faces practical difficulties  Little direct observation of children by researchers, difficult to reach definitive conclusions about childhood sexuality o Primates  Wide variety of sexual behaviors early in life o In contemporary western culture, children are insulated/shielded from sex  Beliefs that children should be kept in state of overall sexual innocence o UCLA STUDY  Results showed young children who saw parents naked or engaging in sex were NO MORE LIKELY to have psychological problems in later childhood or adolescence than children who did not  Tendency was actually FEWER problems o Solitary sexual activity in children is common and normal  Erections detected in fetuses  Erections in young boys  Generalized arousal response  Not necessarily sexually oriented  Ex: excitement from games or other non- sexual stimuli o Interpersonal sexual activity can also occur during childhood  Showing genitals to adults or other children  Attempting to view genitals of others  Solitary/interpersonal sexual behavior by children seems harmless  Girls experience more negative feelings towards sexual experiences  Socialization/gender-role stereotypes o Cultures vary in their attitudes toward childhood sexuality  Restraints on childhood sexual behavior are stronger in societies in which sexual restraint is expected of the adult population o Children and Sexual Contact with adults  ~15% W and ~7% M report childhood sexual experience with an adult  most adult-child contacts are single incidents  most incidents involve relatives and/or family friends  harmful consequences and strategies to prevent adult-child sex (pgs. 318-319) o increased sexual interest in pre-adolescence  information about sexuality spread through peer networks  sex-segregated years  at this time gender norms become stricter  gender norms may traumatize pre-gay children  internalization of homophobic attitudes begin o pubertal growth occurs earlier in girls than in boys  changes occur during puberty  girls  pubic hair, labia become more prominent, vagina deepens, vaginal walls thicken  female breasts develop  onset of menstruation  boys  enlargement of testes and scrotum  lengthening and thickening of penis  pubic hair  voice box grows  first ejaculation generally occurs ~13 (can occur during sleep of masturbation)  Puberty o What causes puberty  Critical body weight  girls: approx.. 66 lbs  boys: approx.. 120 lbs  Primary amenorrhea  Failure to begin menstruating at puberty  Secondary amenorrhea  Cessation of menstruation at some time after menarche  Precocious puberty  Puberty that begins too early  Earlier children enter into puberty, earlier they are likely to become sexually active  Atypical Sexuality (Chapter 13)  Fetishism o Object fetishism: sexual arousal by inanimate objects o Media fetishism: substances (rubber, leather, etc.) o Partialism: body parts (feet, arms) o At what point is someone classified as a “fetishist”?  Opinions vary  Book promotes that someone can be called a fetishist even if not diagnosable as having mental disorder  Internet plays large role in “normalizing” variant forms of sexual expression  Ex: 13.1 on rubber fetishism on pg. 413 o Sadomasochism  Involves infliction or receipt of pain or degradation  Sadism: sexual arousal by infliction of pain  Masochism: sexual arousal by experiencing/receiving pain  Can be physical and/or psychological  Forced submission key erotic element  May include bondage and dominance o BDSM  Acronym given as an all inclusive term for bondage, dominance, and sadomasochism  Read pgs. 415-416 o Adult babies  Adults who obtain sexual gratification from acting as a baby or toddler (pg. 417)  Cross dressing o To wear the clothing of the other sex for any variety of reasons  Doing drag (exaggeratedly feminine worn by a man)  Entertainment purposes  Transgendered cross dressing (NOT SEXUAL)  May be a vital expression of gender identity  Erotic arousal NOT primary motivator  Transvestic fetishism or transvestism (SEXUAL)  Heterosexual men wear women’s clothes for sexually arousing purposes  Can occur in women as well, but more prominent in men  Paraphilia o Problematic and unusual sexual desire or behavior  Considered to by a psychological problem (pgs. 417- 418) o 3 main issues to consider (cannot be considered an absolute criterion)  is there distress?  Is the behavior required for arousal?  Is there a victim? Midterm 2 Review 1/24/2012 9:06:00 PM  Sex and gender differences  Gender: the entire collection of mental and behavioral traits that differ between males and females  Gender identity: sense of which sex we belong to  Transgendered: having a gender identity that is discordant with one’s anatomical sex  Gender role: expression of gender identity in social behavior  M and W differ in cognitive traits o M outperform W on visiospatial skills (pg. 100) o W outperform M on memorization of the location of objects (pg. 101)  M and W differ in personality traits o M and W show aggression differently  M more direct/physical  W more indirect o **Major cross culture differences in six personality factors (pg. 100)** o sex influences cognitive skills and personality but does not predestine people to have any particular collection of gender characteristics  differences between men and women o attitudes toward casual sex o jealousy  W – emotional jealousy  M – physical jealousy o frequency of masturbation o M more permissive attitudes towards  Casual sex  Non-marital sex  Extramarital sex o W and M tend to seek different attributes in sex partners  M more sexually aroused with visual sexual stimuli – like pornography o Men  Masturbate more than women  Men report more frequent intercourse and a younger age of first intercourse  Larger # of total sexual partners  Gay men have more casual sex partners and more total partners than straight men o Gender differences arise early in age  Age 1 – distinguish between faces of males and females  Between ages 2-3 – identify own sex and categorize themselves with same sex children  Between ages 3-4 - Gender consistency  Understanding that sex is a fixed attribute  Toy differences begin to diverge  Boys prefer vehicles, toy weapons, balls, construction toys and engage in more rough and tumble play than girls  Girls prefer dolls, toy kitchen/house implements  Girl/boy play is governed by different moral rules  Girls – appeal to social conventions (feelings, be nice to people, etc.)  Boys – refer to principles of justice (what’s right) o Life experiences influence gender  Gender molded by socialization  Gender imposed from birth  Primary social influence is family  Influence attitudes and behaviors through dressing children, decorating surroundings, toys, etc.  Other influences are exerted by teachers, peer groups, etc.  Infants receiving approval for gender typical behavior  Make gender distinctions earlier in life  Exhibit more gender specific behavior  Gender typical behavior is molded by imitations of individuals seen as authoritative or protective  T.v. plays a major role in influencing gender stereotypes  One study tracked eye movement of children watching T.V.  Children attended more to the same sex characters in the films than characters of the opposite sex  Feminism in 1960’s  Placed emphasis on social learning theories of gender o Traditional gender differences can be modified or even abolished  Some children resistant to socialization  Gay or transgendered children o Violate gender norms even though not encouraged, influenced, or trained o ** children born as one sex but reared as another (pg. 113) ** o cognitive development models focus on thought process  sexual scripts: cultural guidelines that prescribe sexual roles  sexual behavior as a form of role playing with learned parts (flirting with woman at bar  buy her a drink)  people rely on sexual scripts when interacting with prospective partners  scripts change over time under the influence of culture  scripts also influence psychosexual development of an individual o gender development involves complex interactions  transgendered: someone with the anatomy of one sex but identify as the other  transsexual: a sub group of transgendered people who wish to change their body into that of the other sex by medical means (hormone therapy, sexual reassignment surgery)  transmen: female to male transsexuals  childhood: say they are boys; express masculine identity in clothes, hairstyles, friendships, activities, etc.;  puberty: they resent developing signs of womanhood and seek to hide them  adulthood: masculine and are sexually attracted to women o don’t identity as lesbians; identify as heterosexual men  transwomen: 2 different life stories  male to female transsexuals  first story opposite to transmen o often seek sex-reassignment in their teen years or young adulthood  second story (less known) o as children, only mildly gender conformist, or not at all o as adults, usually sexually attracted to women  however, interest in W is usually filled with fetishistic elements (ex: erotically aroused by wearing W’s clothes)  can evolve into feelings of wanting to not only be in W’s clothes but also to be a woman o desire to become a W is fueled by desire to incorporate the object of their attraction into themselves (purely erotic) o often seek sex-reassignment  often after heterosexually married and fathered children o can be referred to as autogynephilia – however HIGHLY debated and is controversial term  gender dysphoria: the unhappiness caused by the discordance between a person’s anatomical sex and gender identity  sex reassignment  often a multistage process called transitioning st  1 : individual is evaluated psychologically and physically nd  2 : “real life experience” o if someone is born in man’s body, but want to transition to woman  have to live for a year or two as a woman without reassignment (to see if they can live in the desired gender role)  3 : given hormones to begin the body change  4 : sex reassignment surgery th  5 : follow ups  most report being satisfied after reassignment surgery  success correlated to: o young age at reassignment o good psychological health o a body build that passes as the opposite sex o family and social support  major problem: cost of transitioning - $30,000- $150,000  not all sex changes are done through “transitioning”  learn about sex reassignment through peer networks o get black market hormone pills o go straight to private surgeon when they feel ready  some transgendered people do NOT want surgery o reasons include:  not enough money  perfectly satisfied with “cross dressing” and/or “passing” as a person of the other sex  can switch between M and F gender roles – not permanent  transgenders and transsexuals struggle for awareness and acceptance  distinguish themselves from lesbians and gays  political activism takes place under larger umbrella of gay rights  still fight to clarify a separate identity  Fertility, Pregnancy, and Childbirth o Pregnancy is confirmed by hormonal tests  Fertilization takes place in oviduct  Implantation: process of embryo burrowing into the endometrium  Begins to secrete the hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)  Pregnancy tests detect the presence of hCG in the mother’s blood or urine o Ultrasound – takes pictures of fetus (5-6 weeks in)  Likelihood of achieving pregnancy can be maximized by tracking ovulation o Fertile couple who engages in coitus several times a week has a 93% chance of achieving a pregnancy in the first year o If a couple does not become pregnant after a year of unprotected sex, they may be considered sub fertile o Coitus is most likely to result in pregnancy when it takes place on the same day as ovulation  Ovulation occurs approximately 14 days after the start of menstruation o Steps to improve chance of pregnancy  Less frequent ejaculations  Man above position  Woman lying on back half an hour after coitus  Infertility o Infertility: total inability to achieve pregnancy without medical intervention  Equally likely to be caused by problems in the M or W o A variety of factors can reduce sperm count  Most common is insufficient or poor quality sperm o Artificial insemination: manual placement of semen in the vagina or uterus o In vitro fertilization: any of a variety of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) in which fertilization takes place outside the body  ** read about in vitro fertilization techniques and screening procedures on pg. 238-239 ** o both sperm and eggs can be donated  sperm easier do donate  eggs receive more compensation o abnormalities of the female reproductive tract may reduce fertility  most common site of abnormality is oviducts  endometriosis  growth of endometrial tissue at abnormal locations o problems with ovulation  most ovulatory problems can be reversed by lifestyle changes, psychotherapy, or drug treatment o surrogate mothers: agrees to be artificially inseminated then carries the fetus to term o adoption  severe shortage of preferred adoptees o fertility declines with age  M – experience a gradual decline in fertility but often maintain some level of fertility until death  W – experience gradual decline in fertility until menopause when fertility ceases o Risk of birth defects increase with age of parents  Children who are born to older parents stand greater risk of having birth effects (ex: down syndrome) o Many embryos do not survive  Majority of abnormal conceptuses are lost at some point in their development  Ectopic pregnancy  Implantation and resulting pregnancy at any site other than the uterus (oviduct, on ovary, in abdomen, etc.)  Commonly leads to early, spontaneous abortion  Can be caused by congenital malformations of the oviducts or uterus  Damage to the oviducts resulting from PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)  Ruptured appendix  By treatment with certain sex steroids and contraceptives that interfere with the normal movement of the embryo in the uterus  Increasing prevalence of PID due to chlamydia infections  Pregnancy o 1 sttrimester  fetus secretes hormones  sustains pregnancy  prepares muscles within the uterus for child birth and the breast for lactation  W may experience symptoms including breast tenderness and morning sickness  Adequate nutrition is vital to a successful pregnancy  Being under or over weight is associated with an increased likelihood of premature birth  Tobacco, alcohol, drug and radiation can harm the fetus  See table 8.1 on pg. 248  GREATEST risk in first trimester nd o 2 trimester  begins at 13 weeks of gestational age  period of common well being (the easiest stage)  abdomen swells, stretch marks may begin to appear  breasts may expel small amounts of colostrum (rich in antibodies)  quickening onset of the fetal movements  moderate exercise is healthy  tests can detect fetal abnormalities  amniocentesis – samples the amniotic fluid by passing a thin needle through the front wall of the abdomen into the amniotic sac  chorionic callus sampling – samples the tissue of the placenta by a catheter that is passed through the cervix rd o 3 trimester  begins at 26 weeks of gestational age  fetus performs many of the bahaviors that it will need to survive outside the womb  W experiences varies greatly  Depression is not uncommon  Locations for childbirth  At home  Hospital (may be less personal, but best location if problems are foreseen prior to delivery)  Birthing center – facility specializing in child birth care  READ ABOUT CHILDBIRTH CLASSES pg. 254-255  REVIEW LECTURE NOTES ON BIRTH PREPARATIONS (Dick Reed, Lamaze classes, etc.) o Couvade: pregnancy like symptoms in the male (empathetic response) o Sex during pregnancy is healthy  Except for blowing air into the vagina  Sexual activity generally drops off during pregnancy o Labor has 3 stages  Engagement/lightening: fetus changes its position in the uterus as its head sinks deep into the pelvis against the cervix  Stage 1  Uterine contractions and cervical dilations (i.e. bloody show)  Effacement (thinning of cervix in preparation for childbirth and dilation (expansion of the cervical canal)  Forms of anesthesia are available  Stage 2  Passage of the fetus through the birth canal  Varies in duration  Crowning – baby’s head appears at vaginal opening  Episiotomy (see video notes)  Stage 2 ends with the passage of the entire body through the vaginal canal  Stage 3  Expulsion of placenta  Further uterine contractions  Afterbirth – expelled placenta o C Section – cesarean section (box 8.4 on page 259) o Premature and delayed births are hazardous to health of baby and mother o Period after birth places many demands on new parents  Postpartum: the weeks following birth  Characterized by physical recovery from stress of pregnancy and childbirth  Postpartum depression: depression in a mother during the period following birth o Childhood and parenthood affect sexuality  Lower or absent sexual activity due to  Exhaustion, preoccupations and the need for recovery of genitalia immediately following childbirth  If comfort allows, W may resume coitus after 3 weeks (although most W wait at least 6) o Breast-feeding is the preferred method of nourishing the infant  Lactation is caused by the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland  Once prolactin is released, oxytocin is responsible for the “let down” of breast milk into the breast tissue and nipples  Content of breast milk changes over time  Colostrum – the milk produced during the first few days after birth; it is low in fat but rich in protein  Breast secretions gradually become richer milk  Infant formula is alternative to breast milk  Breast feeding has many advantages and some drawbacks (pg. 263-264) Midterm 3 Review 1/24/2012 9:06:00 PM  Sexual Behavior  Attitudes toward kissing vary (especially in non-western societies)  Petting and fondling refer to a variety of non-coital behaviors o Foreplay/afterplay o Necking, petting, and heavy petting o Outercourse and “dry humping” o Tribadism  Rubbing vulvas  Oral sex o Increasingly popular o Fellatio  Oral stimulation of penis  May run lips up and down shaft or use the tongue to stimulate sensitive portions (corona and frenulum)  Good communication is key  To avoid gagging  Whether or not partner is okay with having ejaculate in mouth  Demographic differences (more educated people tend to enjoy it more) o Cunnilingus  Oral stimulation of vulva  Explore vulva with lips and tongue  For some women, this is only way they can regularly achieve orgasm o 69 – mutual oral sex in a head to genitals fashion o anilingus – mouth/anal contact o most sexual encounters include coitus  wide variety of positions; different positions achieve different goals  man-above position  W lies on back with legs parted and the M places himself above her (missionary position)  Know advantages and disadvantages  May provide more erotic stimulation to the M than W  Women’s movement has encouraged alternative sex positions (feminist movements)  Woman-above position  Give W greater control  W may receive more erotic stimulation  Side by side position  Relatively relaxed  Prolongs se
More Less

Related notes for SOC 152A

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.