Human Sexuality Midterm Review Notes.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 152A
Professor
Mark Baldwin
Semester
Spring

Description
Midterm Review 1 1/24/2012 9:06:00 PM  5 short answer questions (answer 4 out of 5… choose which one to omit)  bullet points, labeled diagrams, lists OKAY  6 multiple choice (answer all)  30 points overall  bullet points, labeled diagrams, lists OKAY  PRINT ANATOMY CHARTS  Chapter 2 (Women’s Bodies)  Vagina o Outermost portion of reproductive tract o Vaginal wall = highly elastic  Three layers  Mucosa  Intermediate muscular  Fimbro-elastic  Cervix o Back of vagina (bottom/small end of uterus o Structure/function  Separates uterus from vagina  Holds the fetus in the uterus until delivery o The O’s  Opening of cervix  Uterus o Womb o Within the pelvic cavity o Structure  Small, hollow, upside down-pear shaped  Three layers  Endometrium  Myometrium  Perimetrium  Function  Carries the developing fetus until term o READ PAGES 38-39 ABOUT CANCERS  Oviducts (fallopian tubes) o Forms pathway between uterus and left and right ovaries  Does not make direct contact with ovaries o Structure  ~4 inches long  about diameter of spaghetti o Function  where fertilization takes place  fimbria o location  ovary side of each oviduct o structure  fingerlike projections of the oviducts o function  “catch” ovum  cilia o location  inside oviduct o structure  small hair like structures o function  movement propels ovum from each ovary to the uterus  ovaries o located on either side of the uterus o structure  egg-shaped (1-1.5 inches) paired organs o functions  release mature ovum in ovulation  production and secretion of sex hormones (table 2.1 on pg. 43)  follicle o location  many in each ovary o structure/function  site of egg development  ova (plural) ovum (singular) o eggs o mature female gamete prior to or just following fertilization o ovulation: egg released from ovary  menstruation o vaginal discharge of endometrial tissue and blood (innermost layer) o experience at approx.. monthly intervals during fertile years  varies greatly – most cycles lasting between 24 and 32 days o attitudes toward menstruation (see box 2.4 on pg. 46) o tampons, pads, and alternatives on pg. 47-48 o menstrual cycle has 3 phases  menstrual phase: menstrual flow is occurring (woman is on her period)  preovulatory phase: end of menstruation to ovulation (end of period up until ovulation)  postovulatory phase: ovulation to menstruation o most likely to get pregnant in-between preovulatory and postovulatory phases o menstrual problems  nausea, headaches  menstrual cramps: sharp paints/dull aches within lower abdomen or pelvis (myometrium)  dysmenorrhea: painful menstruation  severe enough to limit a woman’s activities (pg. 51)  READ ABOUT PMS PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (pgs.51- 53)  Breast cancer o 180,000 American women diagnosed each year o 13.2% American women will develop the disease o mastectomy: surgical removal of the affected breast o risk of breast cancer  genes, age, reproductive history, alcohol, obesity, exercise, medical history, hormones o early detection is important  periodic breast exams  mammography  see 2.6 on pg. 59 about breast self-examination o treatments and its effects on an active sex life on pg. 58-60  Men’s Bodies (Chapter 3)  Read pg. 69 o Balanitis, phimosis, paraphimosis, Peyronie’s disease, and penile cancer  Diagrams o Glans penis (head) o Corpus cavernosum (outside sections of shaft) o Corpus spongiosum (middle section of shaft)  Testicles (3.10 on pg. 75) o In scrotum o Structure  Twin egg-shaped structures o Function (similar to women)  Produce sperm  Secrete sex hormones  Seminiferous tubules o Located inside each testicle o Structure  Convoluted microscopic tubes o Function  Production of sperm (spermatogenesis)  Sperm o Produced in seminiferous tubules o Structure  Head  Contains genetic info  Tail  Motility o Function  Fertilization of the ovum (egg) o Each man produced 100 million sperm per day  Interstitial cells o Between seminiferous tubules in testis o Function  Secrete sex hormones  Epididymis o One on each testicle (little hat on each testicle) o Structure  Convoluted tube o Function  Site of sperm maturation and storage  Vas deferens (aka vas) o Location  In between the epididymis and the ejaculatory duct o Structure  Tube o Function  Transport and storage of mature sperm from epididymis  ejaculatory duct  Ejaculatory duct o Location/structure  Formed by the junction of the vas and duct of seminal vesicle o Function  Empties into the urethra within the prostate  Prostate gland o Location  Located at base of bladder that surrounds the urethra o Structure  Single gland slightly larger than walnut o Function  Prostate secretions (cloudy, alkaline fluid) are a major component of semen o Read 3.3 and 3.4 on disorders of the testicles and prostate gland (pgs. 77 and 78)  Seminal vesicles o Location  Situated to either side of the prostate (behind the bladder) o Structure  Two glands o Function  NOT storage areas for sperm  Add own secretion  Bulbourethral glands and precum (cowper’s glands) o Location  Near root of penis (below prostate gland) o Structure  2 pea-sized glands o function  their secretions (often called pre-cum) are excreted prior to ejaculation (can get women pregnant if semen stuck in urethra… can get pushed out by precum)  semen o thick, cloudy, off white liquid o expelled from male urethra at ejaculation o sperm = 1% volume of semen  99% combination of fluids secreted by  prostate (~30%) and the seminal vesicles (~70%) o KNOW DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EMISSION, EJACULATION, AND ORGASM (pgs. 80-81)  Sex hormones in men o Androgens  Mainly testosterone  Promotes expression of male typical gender traits  Responsible for maintaining sex drive in men o Estrogens  Required for male fertility o Progestins  Necessary for proper functioning of androgens and estrogens within the male body o NOTE: females also have these sex hormones, but function differently  Chapter 5 – Attraction, Sexual Arousal, Response  Fantasy: Common mode of sexual arousal o An imagined experience, sexual or otherwise (ex: mentally undressing classmates during boring lecture) o M engage in sexual fantasy more than W o Content of sexual fantasies varies greatly o Gender differences in fantasies (5.9 pg. 144)  W fantasized about more than M = getting married  M more adventurous in fantasies  W fantasize about behaviors that they have already engaged in, while M fantasize about activities that they have never done (ex: threesome)  Gay/lesbians fantasies are similar to straight fantasies o M and W fantasies tend to be consistent with stereotypes about M and W sexuality  M = more dominant in sex acts  W = fantasize about taking passive role o People who enjoy sexual fantasies without feelings of guilt have a more satisfying sex life  NOT UNHEALTHY for W to have sexual fantasies about rape/sexual coercion because W IS IN CHARGE and can end it when she wants… unlike real sexual assault  Arousal o M and W aroused by partners’ faces o M aroused (physically and genitally) by erotic images associated with sexual orientation  W aroused physically by erotic images of both W and M (regardless is straight or gay) o Sexual arousal influenced other forms of arousal  Misattribution of arousal: nonsexual arousal  arousal (ex: fear, excitement… roller coaster study pg. 147)  Not entirely conclusive o Hormones influence sexual arousability  Do biological factors influence sexual arousal?  Testosterone  No short term influence on arousal in M  Sexual activity triggers testosterone  High testosterone does not trigger an increase in sexual desire  Testosterone influence arousability in adult M  M can be hypogonadal: producing insufficient levels of sex hormones ( lower sexual desire/activity)  Aphrodisiacs in box 5.4 pg. 149  What do they do?  Don’t need to know full detail o Conditioning may influence arousal  Classical/pavlovian conditioning: form of learning in which novel stimulus is linked with a pre-existing reflex  Used to explain development of fetishes/unusual sexual behavior  Guy watching law and order SVU, decides to masturbate  show about rape… slowly develops fetish for rape because he corresponds masturbation with rape subconsciously  Ex in book: piggy banks and naked women o Sexual arousal follows a response cycle (pg. 151 figure 5.12)  Excitement phase  Response in W  Swelling/opening/deepening in color of labia minora/vaginal wall (vasocongestion)  Vaginal lubrication  Erection of clitoris and nipples  Swelling of breasts, uterus swells and elevates  Increased HR  Response in M  Erection of penis (takes place in under a minute (10 seconds!)  Elevation of testicles  Nipples become erect  Duration of excitement phase varies (1 min – 1 hr. +)  Plateau Phase  Arousal is maintained (lasts 1 min – several hours)  Response in W  Thickening/tightening of walls of outer third of vagina  Vaginal canal narrows  Glans of clitoris goes under clitoral hood  Breasts swell – specifically areolae  “sex flush” and myotonia (muscle tension)  response in M  pre-cum secretions from bulbourethral (Cowper’s) glands  increased myotonia (muscle tension)  Orgasm  Climax of sexual arousal  Orgasm: intense, pleasurable sensation at sexual climax and physiological process that accompany them o Felt as a brief series of muscle contractions o Respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure peak  In M: orgasm followed by 2 genital events o Emission: semen is loaded into urethra o Ejaculation: semen is expelled (W may ejaculate also – box 5.5 pg. 154)  Multiple orgasms o Series of orgasm, and in between person descends only to plateau phase o Much more common in W than M  Resolution Phase  Arousal subsides  Physiological signs reverse  Psychological arousal subsides  Full resolution takes 15 minutes  Look at figure 5.15 pg. 157 about patterns of sexual response  Refractory Period  Period of time after a M orgasms, during which further sexual stimulation does not lead to a renewed erection or a second orgasm  Typically lasts 30-90 minutes (depending on age… more age = longer period)  Absolute vs. relative refractory period o Absolute: no matter what happens, you will not get another erection or orgasm o Relative: maybe 1 million supermodels coming into your bedroom will help you get an erection again  Sexual Behavior (Chapter 6)  Masturbation: sexual self stimulation o Some include manual stimulation of a partner  There are many different attitudes toward masturbation (pgs. 169- 170)  Demographic factors influence masturbation (figure 6.1 on pg. 167)  Average woman o More likely to experience orgasm from masturbating than through p/v sex  W tend to take more time to reach orgasm than M through masturbation  Specific techniques pg. 168  Gay people o Masturbate more than heterosexuals o Report greater pleasure from masturbation  Sexuality across the lifespan (Chapter 10)  Childhood: a period of sexual innocence? o Study of childhood sexuality faces practical difficulties  Little direct observation of children by researchers, difficult to reach definitive conclusions about childhood sexuality o Primates  Wide variety of sexual behaviors early in life o In contemporary western culture, children are insulated/shielded from sex  Beliefs that children should be kept in state of overall sexual innocence o UCLA STUDY  Results showed young children who saw parents naked or engaging in sex were NO MORE LIKELY to have psychological problems in later childhood or adolescence than children who did not  Tendency was actually FEWER problems o Solitary sexual activity in children is common and normal  Erections detected in fetuses  Erections in young boys  Generalized arousal response  Not necessarily sexually oriented  Ex: excitement from games or other non- sexual stimuli o Interpersonal sexual activity can also occur during childhood  Showing genitals to adults or other children  Attempting to view genitals of others  Solitary/interpersonal sexual behavior by children seems harmless  Girls experience more negative feelings towards sexual experiences  Socialization/gender-role stereotypes o Cultures vary in their attitudes toward childhood sexuality  Restraints on childhood sexual behavior are stronger in societies in which sexual restraint is expected of the adult population o Children and Sexual Contact with adults  ~15% W and ~7% M report childhood sexual experience with an adult  most adult-child contacts are single incidents  most incidents involve relatives and/or family friends  harmful consequences and strategies to prevent adult-child sex (pgs. 318-319) o increased sexual interest in pre-adolescence  information about sexuality spread through peer networks  sex-segregated years  at this time gender norms become stricter  gender norms may traumatize pre-gay children  internalization of homophobic attitudes begin o pubertal growth occurs earlier in girls than in boys  changes occur during puberty  girls  pubic hair, labia become more prominent, vagina deepens, vaginal walls thicken  female breasts develop  onset of menstruation  boys  enlargement of testes and scrotum  lengthening and thickening of penis  pubic hair  voice box grows  first ejaculation generally occurs ~13 (can occur during sleep of masturbation)  Puberty o What causes puberty  Critical body weight  girls: approx.. 66 lbs  boys: approx.. 120 lbs  Primary amenorrhea  Failure to begin menstruating at puberty  Secondary amenorrhea  Cessation of menstruation at some time after menarche  Precocious puberty  Puberty that begins too early  Earlier children enter into puberty, earlier they are likely to become sexually active  Atypical Sexuality (Chapter 13)  Fetishism o Object fetishism: sexual arousal by inanimate objects o Media fetishism: substances (rubber, leather, etc.) o Partialism: body parts (feet, arms) o At what point is someone classified as a “fetishist”?  Opinions vary  Book promotes that someone can be called a fetishist even if not diagnosable as having mental disorder  Internet plays large role in “normalizing” variant forms of sexual expression  Ex: 13.1 on rubber fetishism on pg. 413 o Sadomasochism  Involves infliction or receipt of pain or degradation  Sadism: sexual arousal by infliction of pain  Masochism: sexual arousal by experiencing/receiving pain  Can be physical and/or psychological  Forced submission key erotic element  May include bondage and dominance o BDSM  Acronym given as an all inclusive term for bondage, dominance, and sadomasochism  Read pgs. 415-416 o Adult babies  Adults who obtain sexual gratification from acting as a baby or toddler (pg. 417)  Cross dressing o To wear the clothing of the other sex for any variety of reasons  Doing drag (exaggeratedly feminine worn by a man)  Entertainment purposes  Transgendered cross dressing (NOT SEXUAL)  May be a vital expression of gender identity  Erotic arousal NOT primary motivator  Transvestic fetishism or transvestism (SEXUAL)  Heterosexual men wear women’s clothes for sexually arousing purposes  Can occur in women as well, but more prominent in men  Paraphilia o Problematic and unusual sexual desire or behavior  Considered to by a psychological problem (pgs. 417- 418) o 3 main issues to consider (cannot be considered an absolute criterion)  is there distress?  Is the behavior required for arousal?  Is there a victim? Midterm 2 Review 1/24/2012 9:06:00 PM  Sex and gender differences  Gender: the entire collection of mental and behavioral traits that differ between males and females  Gender identity: sense of which sex we belong to  Transgendered: having a gender identity that is discordant with one’s anatomical sex  Gender role: expression of gender identity in social behavior  M and W differ in cognitive traits o M outperform W on visiospatial skills (pg. 100) o W outperform M on memorization of the location of objects (pg. 101)  M and W differ in personality traits o M and W show aggression differently  M more direct/physical  W more indirect o **Major cross culture differences in six personality factors (pg. 100)** o sex influences cognitive skills and personality but does not predestine people to have any particular collection of gender characteristics  differences between men and women o attitudes toward casual sex o jealousy  W – emotional jealousy  M – physical jealousy o frequency of masturbation o M more permissive attitudes towards  Casual sex  Non-marital sex  Extramarital sex o W and M tend to seek different attributes in sex partners  M more sexually aroused with visual sexual stimuli – like pornography o Men  Masturbate more than women  Men report more frequent intercourse and a younger age of first intercourse  Larger # of total sexual partners  Gay men have more casual sex partners and more total partners than straight men o Gender differences arise early in age  Age 1 – distinguish between faces of males and females  Between ages 2-3 – identify own sex and categorize themselves with same sex children  Between ages 3-4 - Gender consistency  Understanding that sex is a fixed attribute  Toy differences begin to diverge  Boys prefer vehicles, toy weapons, balls, construction toys and engage in more rough and tumble play than girls  Girls prefer dolls, toy kitchen/house implements  Girl/boy play is governed by different moral rules  Girls – appeal to social conventions (feelings, be nice to people, etc.)  Boys – refer to principles of justice (what’s right) o Life experiences influence gender  Gender molded by socialization  Gender imposed from birth  Primary social influence is family  Influence attitudes and behaviors through dressing children, decorating surroundings, toys, etc.  Other influences are exerted by teachers, peer groups, etc.  Infants receiving approval for gender typical behavior  Make gender distinctions earlier in life  Exhibit more gender specific behavior  Gender typical behavior is molded by imitations of individuals seen as authoritative or protective  T.v. plays a major role in influencing gender stereotypes  One study tracked eye movement of children watching T.V.  Children attended more to the same sex characters in the films than characters of the opposite sex  Feminism in 1960’s  Placed emphasis on social learning theories of gender o Traditional gender differences can be modified or even abolished  Some children resistant to socialization  Gay or transgendered children o Violate gender norms even though not encouraged, influenced, or trained o ** children born as one sex but reared as another (pg. 113) ** o cognitive development models focus on thought process  sexual scripts: cultural guidelines that prescribe sexual roles  sexual behavior as a form of role playing with learned parts (flirting with woman at bar  buy her a drink)  people rely on sexual scripts when interacting with prospective partners  scripts change over time under the influence of culture  scripts also influence psychosexual development of an individual o gender development involves complex interactions  transgendered: someone with the anatomy of one sex but identify as the other  transsexual: a sub group of transgendered people who wish to change their body into that of the other sex by medical means (hormone therapy, sexual reassignment surgery)  transmen: female to male transsexuals  childhood: say they are boys; express masculine identity in clothes, hairstyles, friendships, activities, etc.;  puberty: they resent developing signs of womanhood and seek to hide them  adulthood: masculine and are sexually attracted to women o don’t identity as lesbians; identify as heterosexual men  transwomen: 2 different life stories  male to female transsexuals  first story opposite to transmen o often seek sex-reassignment in their teen years or young adulthood  second story (less known) o as children, only mildly gender conformist, or not at all o as adults, usually sexually attracted to women  however, interest in W is usually filled with fetishistic elements (ex: erotically aroused by wearing W’s clothes)  can evolve into feelings of wanting to not only be in W’s clothes but also to be a woman o desire to become a W is fueled by desire to incorporate the object of their attraction into themselves (purely erotic) o often seek sex-reassignment  often after heterosexually married and fathered children o can be referred to as autogynephilia – however HIGHLY debated and is controversial term  gender dysphoria: the unhappiness caused by the discordance between a person’s anatomical sex and gender identity  sex reassignment  often a multistage process called transitioning st  1 : individual is evaluated psychologically and physically nd  2 : “real life experience” o if someone is born in man’s body, but want to transition to woman  have to live for a year or two as a woman without reassignment (to see if they can live in the desired gender role)  3 : given hormones to begin the body change  4 : sex reassignment surgery th  5 : follow ups  most report being satisfied after reassignment surgery  success correlated to: o young age at reassignment o good psychological health o a body build that passes as the opposite sex o family and social support  major problem: cost of transitioning - $30,000- $150,000  not all sex changes are done through “transitioning”  learn about sex reassignment through peer networks o get black market hormone pills o go straight to private surgeon when they feel ready  some transgendered people do NOT want surgery o reasons include:  not enough money  perfectly satisfied with “cross dressing” and/or “passing” as a person of the other sex  can switch between M and F gender roles – not permanent  transgenders and transsexuals struggle for awareness and acceptance  distinguish themselves from lesbians and gays  political activism takes place under larger umbrella of gay rights  still fight to clarify a separate identity  Fertility, Pregnancy, and Childbirth o Pregnancy is confirmed by hormonal tests  Fertilization takes place in oviduct  Implantation: process of embryo burrowing into the endometrium  Begins to secrete the hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)  Pregnancy tests detect the presence of hCG in the mother’s blood or urine o Ultrasound – takes pictures of fetus (5-6 weeks in)  Likelihood of achieving pregnancy can be maximized by tracking ovulation o Fertile couple who engages in coitus several times a week has a 93% chance of achieving a pregnancy in the first year o If a couple does not become pregnant after a year of unprotected sex, they may be considered sub fertile o Coitus is most likely to result in pregnancy when it takes place on the same day as ovulation  Ovulation occurs approximately 14 days after the start of menstruation o Steps to improve chance of pregnancy  Less frequent ejaculations  Man above position  Woman lying on back half an hour after coitus  Infertility o Infertility: total inability to achieve pregnancy without medical intervention  Equally likely to be caused by problems in the M or W o A variety of factors can reduce sperm count  Most common is insufficient or poor quality sperm o Artificial insemination: manual placement of semen in the vagina or uterus o In vitro fertilization: any of a variety of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) in which fertilization takes place outside the body  ** read about in vitro fertilization techniques and screening procedures on pg. 238-239 ** o both sperm and eggs can be donated  sperm easier do donate  eggs receive more compensation o abnormalities of the female reproductive tract may reduce fertility  most common site of abnormality is oviducts  endometriosis  growth of endometrial tissue at abnormal locations o problems with ovulation  most ovulatory problems can be reversed by lifestyle changes, psychotherapy, or drug treatment o surrogate mothers: agrees to be artificially inseminated then carries the fetus to term o adoption  severe shortage of preferred adoptees o fertility declines with age  M – experience a gradual decline in fertility but often maintain some level of fertility until death  W – experience gradual decline in fertility until menopause when fertility ceases o Risk of birth defects increase with age of parents  Children who are born to older parents stand greater risk of having birth effects (ex: down syndrome) o Many embryos do not survive  Majority of abnormal conceptuses are lost at some point in their development  Ectopic pregnancy  Implantation and resulting pregnancy at any site other than the uterus (oviduct, on ovary, in abdomen, etc.)  Commonly leads to early, spontaneous abortion  Can be caused by congenital malformations of the oviducts or uterus  Damage to the oviducts resulting from PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)  Ruptured appendix  By treatment with certain sex steroids and contraceptives that interfere with the normal movement of the embryo in the uterus  Increasing prevalence of PID due to chlamydia infections  Pregnancy o 1 sttrimester  fetus secretes hormones  sustains pregnancy  prepares muscles within the uterus for child birth and the breast for lactation  W may experience symptoms including breast tenderness and morning sickness  Adequate nutrition is vital to a successful pregnancy  Being under or over weight is associated with an increased likelihood of premature birth  Tobacco, alcohol, drug and radiation can harm the fetus  See table 8.1 on pg. 248  GREATEST risk in first trimester nd o 2 trimester  begins at 13 weeks of gestational age  period of common well being (the easiest stage)  abdomen swells, stretch marks may begin to appear  breasts may expel small amounts of colostrum (rich in antibodies)  quickening onset of the fetal movements  moderate exercise is healthy  tests can detect fetal abnormalities  amniocentesis – samples the amniotic fluid by passing a thin needle through the front wall of the abdomen into the amniotic sac  chorionic callus sampling – samples the tissue of the placenta by a catheter that is passed through the cervix rd o 3 trimester  begins at 26 weeks of gestational age  fetus performs many of the bahaviors that it will need to survive outside the womb  W experiences varies greatly  Depression is not uncommon  Locations for childbirth  At home  Hospital (may be less personal, but best location if problems are foreseen prior to delivery)  Birthing center – facility specializing in child birth care  READ ABOUT CHILDBIRTH CLASSES pg. 254-255  REVIEW LECTURE NOTES ON BIRTH PREPARATIONS (Dick Reed, Lamaze classes, etc.) o Couvade: pregnancy like symptoms in the male (empathetic response) o Sex during pregnancy is healthy  Except for blowing air into the vagina  Sexual activity generally drops off during pregnancy o Labor has 3 stages  Engagement/lightening: fetus changes its position in the uterus as its head sinks deep into the pelvis against the cervix  Stage 1  Uterine contractions and cervical dilations (i.e. bloody show)  Effacement (thinning of cervix in preparation for childbirth and dilation (expansion of the cervical canal)  Forms of anesthesia are available  Stage 2  Passage of the fetus through the birth canal  Varies in duration  Crowning – baby’s head appears at vaginal opening  Episiotomy (see video notes)  Stage 2 ends with the passage of the entire body through the vaginal canal  Stage 3  Expulsion of placenta  Further uterine contractions  Afterbirth – expelled placenta o C Section – cesarean section (box 8.4 on page 259) o Premature and delayed births are hazardous to health of baby and mother o Period after birth places many demands on new parents  Postpartum: the weeks following birth  Characterized by physical recovery from stress of pregnancy and childbirth  Postpartum depression: depression in a mother during the period following birth o Childhood and parenthood affect sexuality  Lower or absent sexual activity due to  Exhaustion, preoccupations and the need for recovery of genitalia immediately following childbirth  If comfort allows, W may resume coitus after 3 weeks (although most W wait at least 6) o Breast-feeding is the preferred method of nourishing the infant  Lactation is caused by the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland  Once prolactin is released, oxytocin is responsible for the “let down” of breast milk into the breast tissue and nipples  Content of breast milk changes over time  Colostrum – the milk produced during the first few days after birth; it is low in fat but rich in protein  Breast secretions gradually become richer milk  Infant formula is alternative to breast milk  Breast feeding has many advantages and some drawbacks (pg. 263-264) Midterm 3 Review 1/24/2012 9:06:00 PM  Sexual Behavior  Attitudes toward kissing vary (especially in non-western societies)  Petting and fondling refer to a variety of non-coital behaviors o Foreplay/afterplay o Necking, petting, and heavy petting o Outercourse and “dry humping” o Tribadism  Rubbing vulvas  Oral sex o Increasingly popular o Fellatio  Oral stimulation of penis  May run lips up and down shaft or use the tongue to stimulate sensitive portions (corona and frenulum)  Good communication is key  To avoid gagging  Whether or not partner is okay with having ejaculate in mouth  Demographic differences (more educated people tend to enjoy it more) o Cunnilingus  Oral stimulation of vulva  Explore vulva with lips and tongue  For some women, this is only way they can regularly achieve orgasm o 69 – mutual oral sex in a head to genitals fashion o anilingus – mouth/anal contact o most sexual encounters include coitus  wide variety of positions; different positions achieve different goals  man-above position  W lies on back with legs parted and the M places himself above her (missionary position)  Know advantages and disadvantages  May provide more erotic stimulation to the M than W  Women’s movement has encouraged alternative sex positions (feminist movements)  Woman-above position  Give W greater control  W may receive more erotic stimulation  Side by side position  Relatively relaxed  Prolongs se
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