TMP 127 Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Theory X And Theory Y, Organizational Culture, Goal Setting

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TMP 127
Managing Tech Orgs
Winter 2018
Evolution of Theories
Scientific Management Theory: systematic study of relationships
between people & tasks to redesign work process to increase
efficiency
o Identified people as components of a machine; a method to
get things done
o Managers implemented only increased output side of
Taylor’s plan → workers didn’t share in increased input
o Specialized jobs became dull & boring → workers distrust
this method
Administrative/Bureaucratic Theory: create organizational
structure & control system that leads to high efficiency &
effectiveness
o Max Weber: developed principle of bureaucracy as a
formal system of organization & administration designed to
ensure efficiency & effectiveness
o Rules, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), Norms
Behavioral Management Theory: how managers should
personally behave to movitave employes & encourage them to
perform at high levels and be committed to achievement of
organizational goals
o Mary Follett: concerned that Taylor ignored human side of
organization
o Suggested workers help in analyzing their jobs; if workers
have relevant knowledge of the task then they should do
the task
Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations: studies of how
characteristics of work setting affected worker fatigue &
performance at Hawthorne Works
o Worker productivity measured at various levels of light
illumination
o Hawthorne effect: manager's behavior or leadership
approach can affect workers’ level of performance
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o Human relations movement: supervisors should receive
behavioral training to manage subordinate that elicit their
cooperation & increase their productivity
Theory X and Theory Y: McGregor proposed 2 diff sets of
assumptions about workers
o Theory X: negative assumptions about workers that leads
to conclusion that a manager's task is to supervise workers
closely & control their behavior
o Theory Y: positive assumptions about workers that
concludes that a manager’s task is to create a work setting
that encourages commitment to organizational goals &
provides opportunities for workers to be imaginative and to
exercise initiative and self-direction
o Relationships, not financial rewards, motivate people
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TMP 127
Managing Tech Orgs
Winter 2018
Congruence (Alignment) Model - Nadler and Tushman
Congruence measures how well components fit together
to accomplish demands, goals, and objectives of the org
Managers use congruence models to assess
organizational structure of company
Performance gaps: misalignment between firm’s strategy
(intended actions) and its related outputs (what it actually
does)
Opportunity gaps: misalignment between environment
and organizational strategy
Managers must consider institutions, market force,
resources that shape firm’s direction & performance
o Institutions: rules of the game
o Markets: forces of supply & demand
o Resources: assets to which the organization has
access
Organizational history: how outside factors affect firm
performance
Strategy: products, markets, technology that managers
select to meet opportunities & respond to threats;
matches company resources to environment & answers
question of what business the org is in
Managers evaluating firm performance at organization
level: 1) goal attainment, 2) resource utilization, 3)
adaptability
Critical tasks: what org must do well to execute its
strategy successfully; work, workflows, knowledge or
skills each task requires
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