1. What’s the difference between Homeostasis and allostasis?
a. Homeostasis is a constant internal environment of the body (of any physiology
b. Allostasis is when the set point can change of where homeostasis can occur (The
better term of the two)
2. What is the mechanism by which the body can accomplish homeostasis and allostasis
a. Negative feedback loops
3. What is a feedback loop and the major components of feedback loops
a. Loop with unidirectional arrows and the signs indicate how the components affect
each other. Negative feedback preserves the Control and positive feedback
magnitudes the variable.
4. What is the difference between a mechanistic and teleological explanation.
a. Mechanistic - process
Teleological - end result
5. Milieu interior - sum of all physiological variables in the body.
6. What is a basic feedback loops
7. What are the two main cells of the nervous system
Neurons - transmit electrical impulses
Glia - assist neurons
8. What are three things neurons do
1. Nervous System - being center of control
2. Tonic Control - Everything can be controlled
3. Antagonistic Control - 2 separate systems regulate the same variable in opposite ways
4. Tissue Specific Effects - one chemical signal can have different effects in different
10. What 2 body systems are involved in LONG distance reflex pathways
11. Nervous and Endocrine
a. Neuronal do direct control and synapse onto targets
12. What are Cytokines and what are their jobs?
a. Secreted by immune cells and coordinate reflex pathways. Cooperate with both
the nervous and endocrine systems. (They do not act separately and work
together) 13. Stimulus -> Sensor -> Input Signal (afferent signal) -> Integrating center Spinal reflexes
(processor CNS/Brain) -> Output Signal (Efferent) - > Target Tissue (Effector) ->
14. What are the four major types of reflex pathways.
a. Spinal - simple neural reflex Muscle Stretch Reflex -
b. Simple Endocrine
Complex neuroendocrine - require multiple trips through the bloodstream.
(Primary - Insulin Secondary - Trophic Hormones Tertiary - Hormones released
by peripheral glands)
c. Neuro-hormone reflex - stimulus in the periphery motor pathway is initiated
however a hormone is released at some points from a neuron. (Ex.ADH)
15. What do receptors do and what is the difference between central and peripheral?
Pick up a stimulus. One is in the central portion and the other is in the peripheral.
16. What is threshold?
a. When you have graded potentials, they arrive at a neuron and create a
Postsynaptic potential in that neuron. THe cumulative effect of those must hit
threshold value before anAP can be initiated. Minimum possible membrane
voltage that can initiate anAP.
17. True or False Cells are either sensory receptor or integrating receptor.
a. False - they can do both. Like beta cells in pancreas - they sense blood glucose
levels and secrete the hormone insulin
18. Two levels of response for reflex arc pathways
a. Cellular - actual pathway
b. Systemic -
19. Peripheral resistance is increased does venous to the heart increase or decrease?
20. What are nerves?
a. Bundles of axons are nerves outside of the CNS.
b. Ganglia are inside the CN
21. What is axonal transport?