Chapter 6, Lecture and Book Notes: Ionic Bonds and Compounds

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Chemistry and Biochemistry
John Czworkowski

Chapter 6 I. 6-1: The electrostatic force that binds oppositely charged ions together is called an ionic bond a. Comparison of Ionic and Molecular compounds: b. Ionic Molecular (Covalent) Dissolving in Remain in ion form Break up into neutral atoms aqueous solutions: Electricity Good b/c has ions of different They suck conductors: charges in both liquid state and aqueous solutions Bonding Gives away electron Shares electron Electrostatic force: attraction between oppositely charged ions=ionic bonds Melting/boiling Higher melting and boiling points points Element types in Mostly metal and non+etal Mostly only nonmetals them (exceptions are NH 4 Products Form crystal lattices, with evenly If I have a chunk of CO2,t spaced and same ratio all will look like a bunch of throughout individual CO 2olecules thrown together in a pile rather than an ordered system of C-O-C-O-C-O, etc. State at room Mostly solids temperature c. Cation: positively charged ions d. Anion: negatively charged ions e. Memorize some charges: II. 6-2: Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds a. Just cross the charges to get the formula. Easy peasy. III. 6-3: Common Ionic charges of transitional metal ions can be understood in term so f electron configurations a. 18-Outer Electron Configuration: There is stability in 18 outer electrons, in the form ns²np nd 10 i. Ex: Silver has electron configuration [Kr]5s 4d and it is unlikely for Silver to either gain 7 electrons or lose 11 electrons (to follow the octet rule) so just 1 losing the 5s elec2ron6wil10make it stable in an alternative way. And the outer electrons are 4s 4p 4d ii. Memorize the following 18-electron rule ions: II. Some elements, like Thallium, do not follow the octet or the 18-electron rule. But the following configurations have their subshells filled and that's sort of stable. a. Memorize the following : IV. 6-4: The ionic charge of transition metal ions with more than one common ionic charge is indicated by a roman numeral a. New system of nomenclature--roman numerals that indicate the charge. i. Ex: Fe = Iron(III) b. Old nomenclature system is adding suffixes in accordance to "higher" or "lower" number of electrons than common form of ion=different names for each element i. Useless ii. "-ous"= lower common ionic charge iii. "-ic"= higher common ionic charge iv. Eradicates the need to name the anion: 1. Ex: INCORRECT-- CORRECT-- Iron
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