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Chemistry and Biochemistry
Carl Hoeger

Review Ch. 1 -accuracy: closeness of measurement to the true value -precision: closeness of individual measurements to one another -fundamental units vs. derived units ---length (m); mass (kg); time (sec); temperature (K); chemical amount (mol) ---energy (J); pressure (atm); volume (L) -cardinal/counted values represent values that are indivisible without destroying the identity of the unit 10dogs or 85 cars; molecules, atoms, electrons, ions, etc -defined values are those for which the value has been exactly defined all metric to metric or English to English conversions (1 in = 2.54 cm) Ch. 2 -element: substance that contains only atoms with the same nuclear charge; substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances and retain it chemical identity -compound: substance composed of 2 or more elements chemically combine -molecule: structure consisting of 2 or more atoms chemically bound together and so behave as an independent unit -diatomic elements: although found as diatomic in nature, they combine as if they were monoatomic -isotopes: atoms of an element with same # of protons, but different # of neutrons -mixture: a group of two or more elements/compounds that are physically intermingled and can be separated --heterogeneous: one or more visible boundaries between components (non-uniform) --homogeneous (solutions): no visible boundaries (uniform composition) -Law of Conservation of Mass: the total mass of substances doesn’t change during a chemical reaction -Law of Definite/Constant Composition: no matter the source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same relative amounts (%) by mass -Law of Multiple Proportions: when a given element X combines with another element Y to form different compounds, for a fixed mass of X, the ratio of the masses of Y in the different compounds formed consists of small whole numbers -Dalton’s Atomic Theory: 1. Matter is composed of small, indivisible particles called atoms 2. Atoms of a given element are identical, including chemical behavior 3. Atoms of different elements differ in mass and in chemical behavior 4. Compounds result from the chemical combo of 2 or more atoms of diff elements with a specific ratio 5. In chemical reactions, the atoms involved are rearranged, separated, or recombined to form new substances. No atoms created/destroyed -Modern Atomic Theory 1. All matter is composed of atoms 2. Atoms of one element cannot be converted into atoms of another element in a chemical reaction 3. All atoms of an element have the same number of protons and electrons, which determines the chemical behavior of the element 4. Compounds are formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in specific ratios -chemical formula: comprised of element symbols and numerical subscripts that show the type and number of each atom present in the smallest
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