COGS 101C - Midterm 2 Notes

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Department
Cognitive Science
Course Code
COGS 101C
Professor
Benjamin Bergen

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COGS101CMT2GuideSpring2013InstructorBergenLecture 7 Grammar I 42513GrammarBasicsoneoftheaspectsofhumanlanguagethatdiffersfromotheranimalcommunicationsystemsWecanproductivelycombinewordsinnewwaystocreatestringsthathaveneverbeenheardbeforebutarestillmeaningfulviagrammarGrammarisuniversallyhumanandmaybeuniquelyhumananimallanguagenotasflexiblewithcomplexcapacitiesEvolutionaryevidenceshowsthatgrammarmaypredisposeustolearnalanguageIshierarchicallystructuredpartswithinpartswithinpartsusesgrammaticalcategoriesfiguresofspeechnounsandverbswhichdontseemtobeapartofothercommunicationsystemsuseswordorderwhichisdissociateddissociationsometimesrelatestohierarchicalstructuresometimesdoesntThesefeatureshappendespitelocationofdevelopmentwhereachildgrowsupLanguagewithgrammaroccursaslongassocializationwithhumansoccursTruewhetherparentsspeakadifferentlanguageormodalityyouaredeafandparentsarenotGrammarissomethingweretunedtoNonhumanprimatescannotgetascomplexnotevenKokoFunctionsofGrammarGrammarisinservicetocommunicateorganizesthemeaningcontributionsofwordsWordsinadifferentorderhaveadifferentmeaningThekidsatethewatermelonThewatermelonatethekidsNormalvshorrormovieStructuremattersaswellaswordordersinceyoucanstillhavewatermelonbeforekidsandthekidscanstillbetheonesdoingtheeatingThewatermelonwaseatenbythekidsimposeshierarchicalstructureasindicatedbyorderpartsserveparticularfunctionsthatrelatetoeachotherinparticularwaysThekidsatethewatermelonThereisntadifferentseparationoftheseunitsintopartsNOTThekidsatethewatermelonYouknowthisbecauseyoucanreplacethepartswithotherthingsTheKidsisaunitCanbeexpandedwiththehungrykidswhichisnowaunitonitselfThesubjectkidcanhavethingsinsideofitThehungrykidsatethewatermelonCangodeeperintotheunitandhavethesentencestillremainthesame1COGS101CMT2GuideSpring2013InstructorBergenThehungrykidswhohadjustplayedsocceratethewatermelonWecanaddrelativeclausesinsideofthingsembeddingThuswecancomeupwithanyarbitrarilylongsentenceThemonkeykilledthestudentThemonkeythattheprofessortrainedkilledthestudentThemonkeythattheprofessortrainedthatthepoliceweresearchingforkilledthestudentHierarchicalstructureWecanstickthingsunderneathotherthingsNestingonceiseasyforotherpeopletounderstandnestingtwiceishardernesting3moretimesmakesitalmostimpossibleforanyonetounderstandIsuniquelyhumanGenerativeGrammarChomskyanGrammarUntillate1950sBehaviorismprominentmindisablackboxwhereallyoucouldstudywasinputofstimulioutputofobservationsMindisunobservableandunmeasurablesoitsuselesstomeasureitTheonlythingyoucanmeasureisbehaviorHypothesizingaboutmentalstatesrepresentationsandprocessesincludinggrammarwasofflimitsCannotassesstheextensiblefeaturesoflanguageunlimited1957ChomskyattackedSkinnerwithcognitivismCognitivismtheideathatyoucanhypothesizeaboutbuildmodelsofandmeasureexternalmanifestationsofthemindAlthoughthemindisnotdirectlymeasuredyoucanstillinducthypothesesaboutthemindviabehaviorresponseLanguageisinprincipleunlimitedGrammarcanbedescribedintermsofcomputationoutputdoesntnecessarilyreflectmachineryprocessestherearegeneralabstractsimplerrulesthatcanbecombinedforasentenceasopposedtothesentenceformingitselfoperatesovervariableswhichcanbefilledbyspecifictypesofstructuresinanygivencaseThoughtthiswouldmakelanguagestudymorerigorousconformtorulesofsymboliclogicYoucanknowifstringsofwordsthatyouveneverheardofaregrammaticalornotLanguagecapacityworksbygeneratingallgrammaticalpossibilitiesandproducesnosentencesthatareungrammaticalinyourlanguageBecauseyoucanapplyabstractgrammarrulestoanystringwemustknowabstractgeneralrules2COGS101CMT2GuideSpring2013InstructorBergenExampleofgenerativegrammarthatproducesanoninfiniteamountofsentencesNeedtoknowthesetoformasentenceWordskidsmealseathungrybigGrammaticalcategoriesNkidsmealsVeatAdjhungrybigAbstractrulesthatallowyoutopullthemtogetherintobiggerunitsNounPhraseNounPhraseNPAnoptionaladjectiveandthenanounVerbPhraseVPaverbplusanoptionalnounphraseSentenceSNPVPWhenyouapplythesegrammaticalrulesyougetgrammaticalsentencesItscalledgenerativegrammarbecauseabstractrulesgrammarrulesgenerateallgrammaticalsentencesHoweveronceyounestthingsallbetsareofftherecanbeaninfiniteamountofsentencesitisrecursiveLanguageisgenerativeWhenyouapplyrulestogeneratestringsyougetgrammaticalsentencesintheEnglishprimeandnoungrammaticalonesifyouapplyrulescorrectlyKidseatandMealseatarebothgrammaticalProducesdozensofsentencesbutifyouhadmorerulesthenyouhaveaninfiniteamountofpossiblesentencesGrammaticalityhasnothingtodowithmeaningcolorlessgreenideassleepfuriouslyisgrammaticallycorrectbutisnotmeaningfulbutmonkeyfunnyismeaningfulbutnotgrammaticalyoushouldbeabletohaveutterancesthataregrammaticaleventhoughtheydontmakesenseMeaningisseparablefromgrammaraccordingtoChomskyThisgenerativegrammaticalsystemisnotlearnedbutisinnateanduniversaluniversalgrammarduetothepovertyofthestimulusKidsdontgetenoughlinguisticinputfromtheenvironmenttobeabletotriangulatewhattheexactcorrectgrammarisyettheydoendupwiththerightgrammarfortheir3
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