COGS 101C - Final Notes

30 Pages
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Department
Cognitive Science
Course Code
COGS 101C
Professor
Benjamin Bergen

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COGS101CFinalGuideSpring2013InstructorBergenFigurative Language and Abstract Concepts I523ThisseemsfigurativebecausethewordsareusedinsomethingotherthantheirmostobviousliteralwayYankingimpliesinteractingwithsomethingphysicalandtheeconomyisntphysicalBringthedeficitdownAdeficitisthedifferencebetweentheamountyoubringinrevenueandtheamountyouspendItdoesnthavephysicalheightDeeprecessionrecessionsdonthavedimensionalityorspaceGettheeconomytogroweconomiescantliterallygrowEquippedwhentherearenoweaponsortoolsGonethroughwehaventgoneliterallythroughanythingStabilizingthefinancialsystemideaofequilibriumProducingjobsyoucantphysicallyMAKEajobInthelastyearyoucantliterallygoinsideofitorcontainitEnormouschallengeschallengesarenotphysicallylargeunlesstheyrebigorcsWhydoesitseemfigurativeThewordsareusedinsomethingotherthantheirmostobviouslyliteralwayWhatdoesliteralmeanLearnedearliestMaybealiteralsenseisthefirstsenseIeyoulearnenormousfirstasbigbutthenwhenyougetolderitcanmeansignificantorimportantMostconcreteItspossiblethattheresaconcretephysicalmeaningtoequippedasinequippingaweaponandthenwelearnthenonphysicalmeaningasinequippingamentalfacultyorsomethingMostfrequentWemayusecertainwordsmoreinonewaythananothermakingittheliteralsensebecauseitsmostfrequentWeusegrowmoretorefertoplantsratherthantheeconomyHistoricallyEarliestIfawordoriginallyhadonesenseandnowhasanewsensewemaymeantheoldsensewhenwerespeakingliterally1COGS101CFinalGuideSpring2013InstructorBergenHoweverlessfrequentusesofwordsCANbemoreconcreteaswellsothelinebetweentheseandtheirinteractionsarefuzzyEquippedisusedinitslessconcretesensemoreoftenImequippedtodealwithgradingthismidtermbeforeyoureexposedtoImequippedtoclimbthismountainThesedifferentdefinitionsofconcretedonotcorrelatewitheachothersometimesSomefallontheconcretesidesomefallontheabstractsideFigurativeLanguageisImportantforunderstandingconcreteandabstractlanguageItspervasiveinprosepoetryformalinformalwrittenandspokenlanguageWewanttounderstandthefullbreadthofthehumanlanguagefacultyItsachallengeforlanguagetechnologiesthatarebeingimplementedNaturallanguageunderstandingMachinetranslationItraisesimportantquestionsaboutthemindHowdoweunderstandfigurativelanguagethathasmultiplemeaningswheresomearemoreconcreteandothersaremoreabstractDothesedeeperpatternsoffigurativelanguagereflectdeeperpatternsofthoughtIfsowhatisfigurativethoughtTypesofFigurativeLanguageMetaphorUsinglanguagethatprimarilydenotesconcretethingstodescribemoreabstractthingsExamplesCanbemoreproperlyusedinconcretephysicalsenseYanktheeconomyoutoftherecessionBringthedeficitdownBothconcretefigurativephrasesinvolvemotoractionsMoreisuppricesrosefellsoareddroppedskyrocketedAnyverbprepositionalphraseusedtodescribeupordowncanbereferredtopricesvalueAffectioniswarmthHesawarmfrigidcoldpersonSocietyisacontainercastoutofsocietyfellthroughthecracksdrawnbackintosocietywithintheboundsofsocietyMoraliscleanGothishandsdirtykepthisnosecleanCharacteristicsCoherentandsystematicMoreisalwaysuplessisneverupTalksaboutabstractthingstargetdomainasthoughtheywereconcretethingssourcedomainSourcedomainprovidesthelanguagetargetdomainreceivesthelanguageieperformingaphysicalactiononsomethingthatisntphysicalPartsofsourcemapunidirectionallyupisnevermoreandsystematicallyontothepartsofthetarget2
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