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Final

COGS 101B - Final Study Guide

41 Pages
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Department
Cognitive Science
Course Code
COGS 101B
Professor
Sarah Creel

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COGS101BWinter2013
Instructor:SarahCreel
FINALSTUDYGUIDE
FORMAT:40newmaterialquestions,30oldmaterialquestions
ReviewFlashcards
TypesofMemory2/19
Distinctionsinmemory(longtermmemory)
Declarativememory:knowledge/memoriesthatareeasilyverbalized/stated,consistsof
semantic/episodicmemory.
Proceduralmemory:knowledge/memoriesthatarenoteasilyverbalized
● Ex:Howtoholdabowlingball(particularstance),Motormemories
SemanticMemory:generalknowledgelikefacts,Categoryknowledge(orknowledgeofevent
schemas)
Meyer&Schvaneveldt(1971):conceptsthatarerelatedtoeachother,activateeach
other.Semanticmemoryisbasedonyourownknowledge.
Lexicaldecisiontask:Participantsgiventwobuttons,everytimeparticipant
seesawordtheypressabutton,everytimetheyseeanonwordtheypress
anotherbutton.
■ Activationlevelofawordboosted,causesdecisiontobefaster(Reaction
timeofrealword,andhowprimingofrelatedwordpreactivatestheword)
Primeisrelatedorunrelatedword
Fishtolamp:normalRT
cuptobowl:interleavedstructurescoactivateeachother
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COGS101BWinter2013
Instructor:SarahCreel
anotherex:DoctortoNurse(fasterthanDoctortoButter)
Lexicaldecisionto“bowl”isfaster/facilitatedprocessing→first
wordsendssemanticactivationtorelatedwords,causingthemto
bealittlepreactivated,makingthemabitfastertoreachcritical
activation(recognizingitswordnessornot).
Categories:facilitateabilitytomakeinferences;easiertorelatehorsestoanimals,
hardertorecognizehorsesrelatedtoelectrons
○ Theconceptsofhorsesandanimalsareclosertoeachotherratherthan
conceptsofhorsesandmatter
Collins&Quillan:hierarchialmodelofcategorystructure
networkofsemanticmemoryhas:
● Nodes:conceptsi.e.bird,fish,animal),equivalentnodesin
differentlanguages
● Links:connectnodes
○ Labeled:isaorhasa,haspartcomponent
○ Directed:activationcanpassinonlyonedirection
● ActivationTags:tracksyourprogressinanetwork
● Superordinate/subordinate:“animal”issuperordinateto
“mammal,”frenchbulldogandpoodlearesubordinatesto“dog”
category(animal>mammal>dog>bulldog&poodle)
● TestedunderSentenceverificationparadigm(TorF?):“Cat
hasslitpupil”isfastertosayistrueratherthan“acatisan
animal.”Theideaisthatyougoonelinkawayfor“slitpupil”and
twolinksawayfor“animal”
BasicLevel:abasiclevelexistsacrosscultureswheremostpeople
processthingsandkidsfirststartlabelingthings:impropernouns,
commonnouns(dog,cat).Yourpersonalbasiclevelcanchangeby
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COGS101BWinter2013
Instructor:SarahCreel
havingparticularexpertiseinanarea(pinetreevs.tree)
■ Problemswithhierarchicalmodel:
● Typicalityeffect:ifthereisnodifferencesbetweenlinkstrengths,
whyisitfastertosayarobinisabirdoverapenguinisabird?
Moretypicalthings/moreexperiencedthingshavestronger
links→activationarrowisstrongerandsentmorerapidly,
buthierarchystillpresent
● Violationsofhierarchy:Fastertosayachickenisananimal
ratherthanachickenisabird(skipslevelsofhierarchy).Addinga
linkfromchickentoanimalviolatesthehierarchy
● Falseresponses:untrueresponsescanbeslowertosayit’s
falsethat(abatisabird)ratherthan(abatisaplant)dueto
relatednesseffect:misleadingbat/birdsimilaritiesmakesRT
slower
Strictlyhierarchicalmodeldoesn’tcompletelyencapsulatenotions
ofsemanticmemory.Rather,semanticmemorymorelikeaweb
withlinksandactivations,notnecessarilyhierarchical“fire
together,wiretogether.”Similarthingscoactivatetogether.
Episodicmemory:particulareventsintimeorexperiences(graduationdinner)
● Lotsofdetailsaboutrepresentation,temporal/sequencespecific
● Memoryforsource(wherethingshappened,whosaidwhat)
● Truthissubjective
Episodicseparatefromsemanticmemory?
● Semanticmemorydeterminedbycollectivewill,whereasepisodicmemoryisindividual
● Separate,orsemanticmemorymaybebuiltupfromlotsofepisodes
● Amnesiaresearchdoesn’tsupportdistinction
● Wehavememoryforepisodes,butforanterogradeamnesiacsit’shardtoteachnew
semantic/episodicknowledge.Ifepisodesadduptosemantics,youcan’tknockoutone
withouttheother.
Amnesia:Evidencethatepisodicmemoryisnotseparatefromsemanticmemory
Retrogradeamnesia:cannotremembereventspriortotobraindamage,canbe
affectedbyalcohol→VitaminB(mostlyThiamineandFolicAcid)deficiencycausedby
alcoholic(TVtypeamnesia)
Anterogradeamnesia:cannotlaterremembereventsthatoccurafterbraindamage.
Muchmorelikelytooccur.Proceduralmemoryoftenintact.
○ H.Mhadsurgeryin1953fortemporallobeepilepsy.IQwentupafteroperation.
Aftersurgery,hecouldn’tlearnnewpeople,wordsoreventssincesurgery,and
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Description
COGS101BWinter2013InstructorSarahCreelFINALSTUDYGUIDEFORMAT40newmaterialquestions30oldmaterialquestionsReviewFlashcardsTypesofMemory219DistinctionsinmemorylongtermmemoryDeclarativememoryknowledgememoriesthatareeasilyverbalizedstatedconsistsofsemanticepisodicmemoryProceduralmemoryknowledgememoriesthatarenoteasilyverbalizedExHowtoholdabowlingballparticularstanceMotormemoriesSemanticMemorygeneralknowledgelikefactsCategoryknowledgeorknowledgeofeventschemasMeyerSchvaneveldt1971conceptsthatarerelatedtoeachotheractivateeachotherSemanticmemoryisbasedonyourownknowledgeLexicaldecisiontaskParticipantsgiventwobuttonseverytimeparticipantseesawordtheypressabuttoneverytimetheyseeanonwordtheypressanotherbuttonActivationlevelofawordboostedcausesdecisiontobefasterReactiontimeofrealwordandhowprimingofrelatedwordpreactivatesthewordPrimeisrelatedorunrelatedwordFishtolampnormalRTcuptobowlinterleavedstructurescoactivateeachother1COGS101BWinter2013InstructorSarahCreelanotherexDoctortoNursefasterthanDoctortoButterLexicaldecisiontobowlisfasterfacilitatedprocessingfirstwordsendssemanticactivationtorelatedwordscausingthemtobealittlepreactivatedmakingthemabitfastertoreachcriticalactivationrecognizingitswordnessornotCategoriesfacilitateabilitytomakeinferenceseasiertorelatehorsestoanimalshardertorecognizehorsesrelatedtoelectronsTheconceptsofhorsesandanimalsareclosertoeachotherratherthanconceptsofhorsesandmatterCollinsQuillanhierarchialmodelofcategorystructurenetworkofsemanticmemoryhasNodesconceptsiebirdfishanimalequivalentnodesindifferentlanguagesLinksconnectnodesLabeledisaorhasahaspartcomponentDirectedactivationcanpassinonlyonedirectionActivationTagstracksyourprogressinanetworkSuperordinatesubordinateanimalissuperordinatetomammalfrenchbulldogandpoodlearesubordinatestodogcategoryanimalmammaldogbulldogpoodleTestedunderSentenceverificationparadigmTorFCathasslitpupilisfastertosayistrueratherthanacatisananimalTheideaisthatyougoonelinkawayforslitpupilandtwolinksawayforanimalBasicLevelabasiclevelexistsacrosscultureswheremostpeopleprocessthingsandkidsfirststartlabelingthingsimpropernounscommonnounsdogcatYourpersonalbasiclevelcanchangeby2COGS101BWinter2013InstructorSarahCreelhavingparticularexpertiseinanareapinetreevstreeProblemswithhierarchicalmodelTypicalityeffectifthereisnodifferencesbetweenlinkstrengthswhyisitfastertosayarobinisabirdoverapenguinisabirdMoretypicalthingsmoreexperiencedthingshavestrongerlinksactivationarrowisstrongerandsentmorerapidlybuthierarchystillpresentViolationsofhierarchyFastertosayachickenisananimalratherthanachickenisabirdskipslevelsofhierarchyAddingalinkfromchickentoanimalviolatesthehierarchyFalseresponsesuntrueresponsescanbeslowertosayitsfalsethatabatisabirdratherthanabatisaplantduetorelatednesseffectmisleadingbatbirdsimilaritiesmakesRTslowerStrictlyhierarchicalmodeldoesntcompletelyencapsulatenotionsofsemanticmemoryRathersemanticmemorymorelikeawebwithlinksandactivationsnotnecessarilyhierarchicalfiretogetherwiretogetherSimilarthingscoactivatetogetherEpisodicmemoryparticulareventsintimeorexperiencesgraduationdinnerLotsofdetailsaboutrepresentationtemporalsequencespecificMemoryforsourcewherethingshappenedwhosaidwhatTruthissubjectiveEpisodicseparatefromsemanticmemorySemanticmemorydeterminedbycollectivewillwhereasepisodicmemoryisindividualSeparateorsemanticmemorymaybebuiltupfromlotsofepisodesAmnesiaresearchdoesntsupportdistinctionWehavememoryforepisodesbutforanterogradeamnesiacsitshardtoteachnewsemanticepisodicknowledgeIfepisodesadduptosemanticsyoucantknockoutonewithouttheotherAmnesiaEvidencethatepisodicmemoryisnotseparatefromsemanticmemoryRetrogradeamnesiacannotremembereventspriortotobraindamagecanbeaffectedbyalcoholVitaminBmostlyThiamineandFolicAciddeficiencycausedbyalcoholicTVtypeamnesiaAnterogradeamnesiacannotlaterremembereventsthatoccurafterbraindamageMuchmorelikelytooccurProceduralmemoryoftenintactHMhadsurgeryin1953fortemporallobeepilepsyIQwentupafteroperationAftersurgeryhecouldntlearnnewpeoplewordsoreventssincesurgeryand3
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