Midterm Study Guide

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Department
Making of the Modern World
Course
MMW 11
Professor
Page Dubois
Semester
Fall

Description
bi-pedalism- is a form of walking with two legs or rear limbs hominid- includes the upright humans, austrolopictecus, homo erectus, homo sapiens , apes walk on two feet, homo habilis Paleolithic- the era where the most primitive stone tools were used. The Australopithecus were in this period of time. Went to 10,000 bce. In this period of time, humans foraged for food, hunter gatherers Neolithic-rise of farming/agriculture near the end of the stone age, Jericho earliest village homo erectus- larger brain and fashioned more sophisticated tools, started and tended fires, communicated complex ideas, hunter-gatherers-during paleolithic, no social distinctions, men hunted for food, women gathered food and tended food, women tended plants and nurtured them, homo sapiens sapiens- humans walking today, the only surviving hominid; species to which modern man belongs; bipedal primate having language and ability to make and use complex tools; brain volume at least 1400 cc Neanderthals-earliest evidence of reflective thought comes from them, now extinct, were not upright, belong to the genus homo, came after erectus and habilis Lucy- firstAustralopithecus, 3.4 million years ago, provided evidence for similarity between humans and apes. Brain similar to apes and bipedalism similar to humans artificial selectioHuman intervention in animal or plant reproduction to ensure that certain desirable traits are represented in successive generations. Hammurabi-He dominated Mesopotamia till 1600BC, he relied on a centralized bureaucratic rule and regular taxation, made an efficient and predictable government with taxes, came up with the hammurabi’s law which is the most extensive and complete meso. Law code. It relied on lex talionis which is the law of retaliation whereby offenders suffered punishments resembling their violations, strict on women, Akhenaten- (pharaoh) considered aten the only god, he built capital Akhenaten, aten was the sun god and only god Ma’at- was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, law, morality, and justice. Ma’at was personified as a goddess who regulated the stars and seasons and the actions of both morals and deities Ur- city built by sumerians along the rivers of tigris and Euphrates, this city contains the ziggurat of ur, considered to be the birthplace of Abraham, he was the Hebrew patriarch, In Jewish and Christian tradition, Abraham is the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac. In Islamic tradition, Abraham is considered a prophet of Islam, an ancestor of Muhammad Pharaoh-had more than one wife, the rulers of all ancient Egyptian dynasties, owned all land and commanded all wealth Prophets-is an individual who is claimed to have been contacted by the supernatural or the divine and to speak for them, serving as an intermediary with humanity, story of the people, remind people of the past, Muhammed and Abraham, Diaspora-is the migration of people away from an established or ancestral homeland Ba’al-israelites worshipped baal the god of canaanites, mentioned in the Hebrew bible, Covenant- a formal alliance or agreement made by God with a religious community or with humanity in general, practiced with circumcision, cutting a mark that shows a connection between god and the people Ziggurat- distinctive stepped pyramids that housed temples and altars to the principle local deity, used for religious sacrifice to get closer to gods, used by Babylonians, Pyramid-most enduring symbols of their authority, functioned as royal tombs as well, largest pyramid was Khofu, Osiris-Brother Seth murders Osiris and Osiris’ wife Isis finds the body parts of Osiris and gives him a proper burial. The gods then give him the power of becoming the god of afterlife-King of the Dead, he was the judge of the dead with the help of Anobis(god of mummification) Passover- this festival commemorates the story of the Exodus, in which the ancient Israelites were freed from slavery in Egypt. ?“E”- this is a part that makes up the Hebrew bible, elohim is a word for gods, ephraimitic is a word that describes inhabitants of the northern kingdom of Israel, founded by Jacob and joseph, led by adhoc, Babylonians—had a centralized bureaucratic rule and regular taxation, Hammurabi was one ruler, conquered the ekadians, Sargon of Akkad came right before the Babylonian empire, he organized a coup against the king and took control of the empire and placed his governors in control, he controlled and taxed trade which was able to make Akkad a rich capital with a powerful army, sargon was an ekadian ?Asherah- semitic mother goddess, she was considered the fertility goddess Minoans-they were the first greek society that settled on the island of crete, this society developed after the king minos, he built many palaces most notably the one at Knossos- taxes were collected here, rulers lived here, and w
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