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Making of the Modern World
MMW 11
Page Dubois

Study Guide for India thIndus valley civilization 19 century was when this was discovered Near the indus river and the Ganges the two cities in this civilization were MohenjoDaro and Harappa this was located in Punjab and Pakistan culture disappeared some believe by deforestation or change in climate or change in flow of river larger than Egypt and Mesopotamia no evidence of political organizationAryans menas noble they were from indoeuropean tribes some went to india and some to Europe they were nomadic pastorals they later became more militaristic and were led by rajas and had cavalries 1500bce women here were held in higher regard found dehli tribal chiefdomships became kingships assemblies governed them their sacred language was sanskrit had religionIndra their war god didnt have central govt but chiefdomships made caste systemIndoEuropean people who migrated from the European area and came to india Aryans were considered indoeuropeanVarna use to refer to major social classes refers to color in Sanskrit distinctions arose from the complexion of Aryans and dravidians four main varnas Brahminspriests Kshatriyaswarriors and aristocrats Vaishyascultivators Shudras peasants and serfs and untouchables had rules about marrying into other castes body of purusa made thisMahavira he was a Kshatriya who was an important voice in Jainism he starved himself to death because he was so committed to ahimsa teacher Left Kshatriya at age of 30 to seek salvation and escape cycle of reincarnation Wandered the Ganges valley for 12 years abandoned all worldly goods sand taught ascetic doctrine of detachment from world to his disciplesKarma the actions that shape your life from the teachings of the upanishads karma accounted for specific incarnations that souls experienced a man of good acts will become good and vice versa Brhadaranyaka Upanishad used this to explain the caste system also involved samsara which was that we were in a cycle of birth and rebirth where souls would go to the world of the fathers and then to earth in new incarnations based on karma with good karma you achieved moksha deep dreamless sleep that came with liberation from physical incarnation Vishnuhe was in the Mahabharata he was the preserver of the world who intervened frequenty on behalf of virtuous individuals rama was an incarnation of Vishnu main vedic godRig Veda collection of songs has the gods of the vedic people it means praise knowledge it has what priests were chanting 1028 hymns indra is the king of the gods god of war and weather great emphasis on ritual priests became more powerful called in peoples houses to perform rituals microcosmyou are a part of the universehas hymns to various gods and natural phenomenon prayers praising gods prayers about rituals and prosperity still used today by hindus theme was preciousness of animals Ashoka grandson of Chandragupta who founded mauryan empire ruled through bureaucracy advocated Buddhism after conquering kallinga turned to buddhism to stop violence he had a espionage system he wrote his beliefs on big rocks in his empire he was a great example of tolerance and Buddhism embeddnessAtman this was the word for self but becomes everything this is the microcosm and macrocosm relationship the individual soul or essence part of the samkhya philosophy which says that the divided universe is more focused on the atman of the self everyone has their own purusa Focus shifted away from priests and their ability to sacrifice Sacrifices moved into people homes and eventually into the self of individualUpanishads taught each person participates in a larger cosmic order and forms small part of the universal soul Brahman the eternal unchanging reality that transcends worldly existenceUltimate goalescape cycle of birth and rebirth into illusionary world and enter the BrahmanAhimsa Buddhism and Jainism focused on this Jainisms main thing was ahimsa which is nonviolence concern of the welfare of every being on the universe Mahavira starved himself to death because he was so committed to ahimsa they could not eat animals and had to sweep areas before they walked couldnt be farmers because of this must practice in order to become ready to do yoga Soma a god of the vedic people who was hallucinogenic a hallucinogen could have been associated with this god indra is known as the king of gods and great soma drinker rig veda calls it the god of the gods has energizing quality if you drink soma you become immortal according to vedas gods drink in copious amountsFour Noble Truths buddhas dharmateaching The four noble truths were the truth of suffering human existence is suffering because of inevitable separation from what we want truth of cause of suffering the desire leads to suffering and rebirth truth of cessation of suffering suffering ceases with cessation of thirst truth of the path toward the cessation of suffering follow the eight fold path Eightfold Path right belief resolve speechnot lie behaviorahimsa occupation effort contemplation meditation only they will you reach a state of perfect spiritual independencenirvana 8 beliefs thhings one should do to attain nirvana Mohenjodaro developed in the indus chief city in the indus near indus river and ganges in Punjab and Pakistan no evidence of political org city walls there were centers of political authority where taxes were collected had large pools maybe for ritual purposes no royal palaces worshipped animals culture disappeared some people believe by deforestation change in climate or change in flow of riverMahabharata seeked to offer a total account of culture theme is the nature and fundamental contradictions of political power and recounts the struggle for the throne between two groups of cousins written by Krishna Vyasa the father of Pandu and Dhritarashtra political power is the main focus man is slave to power the Pandavas seek to establish an independent kingdom which angers Duryodhana who then challenges yudhistira to a dice game the metaphor is exemplified in this that power itself is a gamble and a symptom of the human frailties in everyone shows how uncertain life can be like the throw of a dice leads to the war battle between the cousins struggle between power cousins strive to understand law what is dharma
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