MMW Lecture Notes (For Final)

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University of California - San Diego
Making of the Modern World
MMW 11
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MMW Lecture Notes- India 1. Indus Valley Civilization 2. Aryans 3. Vedic Culture Important Terms  Mohenjo-daro  Harappa  Aryan  Indra  Soma  Purusa  Brahmin(Aryans)  Kshatriya(Aryans)  Vaisya(Aryans)  Sudra Notes  Relationship with nature- embeddedness, human beings are supposed to be a part of nature (Asia)  India is the home of the greatest metaphysical and spiritual reflections of the ancient world  Love of the body, culture of eroticism- Kamasutra came from india not from this period of time though  Indus Valley Civilization th o 2300BCE- a civilization that was long lost and forgotten, in 19 century when these relics were found o Civilization near indus river and ganges o The text has not been deciphered yet but cities have been named mohenjo-daro and Harappa- In Punjab  Different than cities in Mesopotamia.  Didn’t have royal palaces, it was an urban setting with greeneries  Pools used for ritual bathing  Worshipped animals, made penis their god  The had seals that was marked with letters-undeciphered  This culture disappears, some people believe caused by deforestation or change in climate or change in flow of river or too much demand on land  some people argue it was an invasion from the north  Aryans showed up  Aryans showed up in the Indus Valley Civilization o Means noble, come from the indo-european tribes- went to Europe and india (theory- brought their indo-european language which was Sanskrit) o All languages from Slavic were similar to Sanskrit- may have branched out from one language o Came into central asia some went to iran and some went to india- Aryans- nomadic pastorals (wandering people) o Around 1500 BCE, o Avestan branch became Iranians, Persians, o Aryans became more militaristic and led by raja and had cavalry, o They had priests who sacrificed to the gods, o They had assemblies that governed them, not much left because they were pastoral, moving o Soon became agriculturalists, enslaved people which then produces the caste system o Women were held in higher regard in this world, widows could remarry o They kept pushing south and eastward into the ganges rivers o 1500BCE-1000BCE moving eastward and finally founded the settlement Dehli, blending of the indigenous culture and Aryan culture o Tribal chiefdomships became kingships. Priests somewhat became elite because they knew the sacred texts(not written down so sacred songs) o Old tribal assemblies of warriors died down, no oligarchy, became monarchy, several kingdoms o Caste(Portuguese)=Varna(means color in Sanskrit)  Vaisya were agricultural people, farmers, common people  Sudras- landless peasants and serfs  Kshatriyas- warriors and aristocrats  Brahmins- Priests  untouchables  Rules about marrying different castes and eating with them  This stabilizes with a religious doctrine  About origin of caste Passage- (rig Veda) Page 98 first sacrifice, the gods sacrifice Purusa, justification of class system, his mouth becomes Brahmins, arms Kshatriyas, other parts and other castes  Vedic culture o Caste system o Centered around the Vedas- sacred songs o Gods of the Vedic People  Varuna=Ouranos(Greek) god of the sky, of water and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. He is the most prominent Asura in the Rigveda, and lord of the heavens and the earth.  Indra god that fights a dragon and unleashes a great flood, war god  Agni- Fire god- sacrificed in the fire ritual  Soma another god, maybe hallucinogen  Sacrifice is seen as the making of the world o We know this because of the collection of songs called the Rig Veda o Rig Veda means praise knowledge  Writes down what priests were chanting, they memorized these many songs 1028 hymns  Theme: Preciousness of animals comes up a lot in the rig veda  Indra is the king of the gods and the great soma drinker  Writings of priest chants  Great emphasis on ritual, priests become more powerful, called in peoples houses to perform rituals there  Microcosm- you are reflected on the universe, you are a part of the universe Final will be on the second half of the course. 2 essays second essay will ask you to compare first half and second half. Western civilization alienation from nature development of university and individualism, questioning of authority, how to arrive at the truth, all of this is different than the Chinese and indian civilization Images  Animal Seals- scripts of the indus valley civilization don’t know whether Aryan language or Dravidian(from south india) language. There is a guy who sits in the yoga position who may be the predecessor of practices in other religions  Male Figure in Yogic Posture, you see this later in hindu and Buddhist meditation.  Portrait of a Priest- sign of some transfer of imagery, understanding of sovereignty  Young Dancer- has a mobility than Egyptian sculptures, future nature of indian art, more lively, ancient west had static art  India Day 2 Lecture 1. Brahmanism 2. Buddhism 3. Mauryan Empire Important Terms  Brahman  Atman  Upanishads  Samsara  Karma  Samkhya  Moksha  Ahimsa  Jains  Siddhartha Gautama  4 Noble Truths  8 Fold Path  Ashoka  Dharama Notes  Mahabharata and Iliad are similar in some ways o Page 830 of Longman Draupadi is forced to go over to the other side  Brahman- came in later vedic period, abstract supreme reality, this is life itself, it is one thing but basically all things. Sacrifice that priests conducted moved away from shrines to peoples houses(different than Brahmin)  Atman- word for self but becomes everything, this is microcosm and macrocosm relationship  Some of the priestly class become renouncers, dissenters, and go to the forest to find another kind of truth, these people become ascetics, people who give up self pleasures, focus on meditation rather than relationship priests have made with gods o Renouncers take up an early form of yoga(relation to earlier image), transformation from a religion that is active to a religion that is internal, religion is internalized.  Upanishads- new kinds of teaching different from the Vedas, meditation on the syllable Om, all sounds in the earth o Samsara and Karma come from here,  Samsara is a transmigration of the soul, soul can reincarnate in many forms  Karma is the accounting of deeds and sins that situates themselves in a new body in the next birth  If you behave badly you may go down in caste or vice versa o Moksha- is the release from this repetition of birth, if you move out of world of illusion then you may reach here, release comes with realization that reality is not changing o A father says to his son that an invisible essence is the reality of the earth, father gives him a cup of water and tells him to put the salt in it, the son can’t find it next day because the salt dissolves in the water, the water then tastes like salt (an invisible essence) o Upanishads look at the universe  Samkhya- analytic philosophy where you divided the universe, it is more focused on the atman of the self, everyone has their own Purusa(formed the caste system when he was dismembered)  This is when yoga becomes even more important 6 century bce. o Form of thinking about selfhood and getting deeper into reality  Ahimsa- nonviolence, must practice in order to become ready to do yoga, many prohibitions to do yoga- this liberates self  500 BCE- get a society that is shaped by Aryans who migrated in and indigenous people, there was both urban and village life o In the Brahmanic areas you get hereditaric kings who replaced the chiefdoms  Republics still exists, ruled by warriors and aristocrats(oligarchy) o More tolerant of unorthodox views than monarchies o Site of unorthodox ideas  Jains o Conthnuity that may go back to the indus valley civilizations o 6 century BCE, Mahavira was seen as an important voice in Jainism, he was a Kshatriya. He starved himself to death because he was so committed to ahimsa  Can’t eat animals, had to sweep the areas they walked so they didn’t kill what they couldn’t see o They sought purification from rebirth was received not through knowledge but through  Human intelligence cannot understand greatness of all, like a blind man o They couldn’t be farmers, Jains became traders, involved in maritime commerce, moneylenders, o Predecessor to Buddhism  Siddhartha Gautama- Buddha- means the awakened one o 563 BCE born, 483 BCE left his body, died 411BCE all speculations o Born in Northern India in one of these republics, a lot of contact from traders o Father was chiefdom of the Shakya clan, father wanted him to be emperor of india o 4 sights- his father tried to protect him from these 4 sights to prevent him from becoming a monk, married at 16 and had a son  But Buddha ran into sufferers who enlightened him, he didn’t know anything about death or old age but crossed path with mthy people where he learned about illness, death, and old age (3 sights) 4 sight was one of these renouncers, ascetic, in a yellow robe who was serene and he decided that he would change his life  Decided to become a homeless wanderer, left his family, many Buddhists left their families  He tries the ascetic path, living without any pleasure, practiced yoga, tried Jainism  He needed to eat and drink to sustain his intellect and think about life, sat in a tree and meditated,  The answer came to him, that his suffering was due to desire o What caused pain o He had to eliminate desire, demon(Mara) comes to him and seductive maids to him in order to make him go out of this thought. o Decides to not just leave the world but communicate this discovery to others, he goes to the deer park in Banaras, Dharma(teaching), he preaches to them the middleway  Buddhist monks are made, no rituals, not priests, no properties, just wander to teach 4 Noble truths o Truth of Suffering- human existence is suffering because of inevitable separation from what we want o Truth of cause of suffering- the desire leads to suffering and rebirth o Truth of cessation of Suffering- suffering ceases with cessation of thirst o Truth of the Path toward the cessation of suffering- yyou get the 8foldpath from this(do not need to know this)  Understand truths, want to be compassionate, right speech(not lie), right conduct(do not engage in violence hurting people), right endeavor, right mindfulness(meditation), right meditation  Avoid attachment  Buddha did not want to be object of worship o Rejects caste system(Jainism does as well) o Brahman refers to the Supreme Self. Brahmin (or Brahmana) refers to an individual  Mahayana Buddhism- unorthodox- greater vehicle  Hinayana- orthodox- lesser vehicle  Ashoka- greatest emperor of India, heir of the mauryan empire, converts to Buddhism after his battle with Kalingas, established well governed empire, irrigation, protected craft guilds, had a lot of spies, espionage system o He violently killed the kalingas, which filled him with remorse and became a devotee of nonviolence. He encouraged religious tolerance o 224 in Traditions and Encounters, there is a description of him as a teacher of humility, You sir look at the caste and not the quality of the monks. Where he tries to sell a head o He wrote his beliefs on these big rocks inscriptions where crowds were likely to gather  857-860 in Longman- his rules are inscribed- Rock Edict 13- immediately after the Kalingas had been conquered, expresses compassion for his victims, his ideology of government was under the cultivation of tolerance. He stressed the acceptance of difference and nonviolence  One should speak the truth, respect others the way pupils should honor their teachers  Page 860 all men are my children- Kalinga Edict o He traveled through his empire, and after no one could govern this huge empire, died in 230BCE  In India, gods are a part of nature, in buddhism they are embedded in nature,  Rulers of the vedic period are the rajas and the Kshatriyas, the mauryans, emperor ashoka was a great example of tolerance and Buddhism Images  Buddha’s footprints, the middle figure shows his dharma  Mauryann Pillar- reminded people of his opinion and it was a marking of the landscape, put his rules on here, he had an espionage system  Standing sakyamuni- western art influenced this, this Buddha wears the toga MMW Lecture Notes Ancient China 1. Geography 2. Myth 3. Xia, Shang dynasties 4. Zhou Dynasty Important Terms  Pangy  Fu Xi  Shen Nong  Yao  Shun  Yu  ShangdiTiam  Oracle bones  Spring and Autumn Era (722-281BCE)  Warring States 482-221BCE Notes  China is the last of the great classical civilization, oldest continuous civilization  Has great political stability  The breakup of kinship based on feudal relationships and their transmutation into political systems  Moving to an idea of a universal order, holistic, order is the right state of things, rulers must preserve this order which is in relation to the heavens  Ruler must be replaced if order goes out  Different from india in the fact that order is not based on religion, india has purusa  China had disembeddedness of politics and religion  Geography o Had this opening to the northwest, had contact with middleeast o China is more isolated, it evolved more independently, this was the big dog culture of the east o Has impact on Korea and Japan o Between india and china theres the Himalayas and deserts o Tiny corridor in the northwest of china where people entered and left, later became the silk routes which ended up having silk delivered to rome o Within china there is two great river bases, Yangzi and yellow rivers  Yellow river carries loweis?- a dust kinda thing  Earliest agricultural societies began in the yellow river  Yellow river had a tendency to flood, seen as china’s sorrow, management of rivers led to development of civilizations, used dykes to tame yellow river  Most important myth of creation of china- myth of pangu- there was an egg, within the egg there was chaotic mass, heaven and earth was all mixed together, and pangu grew up inside this egg, he decides to bring order into this universe and breaks open the egg, the lighter part became heavens and heavier part became earth, he separated earth and heavens so he can stand, he lies down on earth and his body gives shape to the universe, body forms many mountains in different directions, the hair forms the planet and the stars, left eye became sun, feet and bones made up rocks and minerals, hair on his body formed trees, human beings were made from the feeds of the body, east there are holy mountains, square earth with a center of the sacred mountains. China became a sacred space inhabited my flees of pangu o There are other mythic stories, three huangs, understood to be the founders of the empires, FuXi the common oldest ruler, invented the tri grams of the echi o Shen Nong-god of agriculture and of fire o Nuwa-shes a serpent dragon, mother goddess, she had a tail of a dragon instead of human legs, consort of fuxi, she formed little people with legs and breathed life into them these became aristocrats, and she got bored and got a rope and dipped into clay and made mud people who became the peasants o Some scholars think that smaller women illustrated power, o Emperors that came after the august ones, 5 emperors one called the yellow emperors, other important emperors in this phase yao, shun, yu  Yao- he did not leave his imperial power to his son but instead found a worthy heir, a pious man of the people, Yin and yang were in harmony, wind and rain regulated wealth, he said to establish calendar,  Shun was a model of virtue, he had to go to various ordeals to show that he was worthy to be emperor, art of the bird art of the dragon, this may be an illusion to martial arts, Shun left his rein to Yu  Yu founder of the first real dynasty Xia, used to be thought as mythical but it did exist, he is known to have conquered the floods and mastered the rivers, he had a miraculous birth, his mother saw a shooting star and swallowed a magic pearl and her chest breaks open to release him,  mandate of heaven is that heaven recognizes the good ruler and does not send bad things to the humans,  one bad emperor who punished and tortured people, brought women for amusement o Yi the archer, myth of Korean culture, 10 suns in this myth, people didn’t know this because suns crossed over and no one saw them, sun passed in a chariot driven by dragons, this was understood to be a golden age where humans couldn’t harm animals, serpents didn’t bite them, tigers didn’t hurt anyone, one day all the suns decided to cross together and many animals were killed, things burned, seas dried up, everyone died of thirst, people asked the emperor to help and he sent the archer Yi. He shot his arrows and the suns and one by one they died and he left one sun and civilization was saved  Xia, Shang Dynasty o Cities were built on raised platforms to make them long-lasting o They found storage pits of bronze, technologies that weren’t in Europe for 3000 thousand years –Shang o They overlapped with the Xia, they eventually took over the Xia, separate districts for artisans, ruling class had different areas where they lived, o Warfare was very important, nobles were the warriors, they forced the rule of shang by coercion, ruled china by family inheritance o Controlled the peasants who were almost like serfs o Idea of yin and yang go back to this period o They may have lived in caves, like Neolithic o Kings lived in palaces, they used bronze weapons in battle, had chariots that came from indo-european tribes, o Start of ancestor worship, the dead could help them living, o this is a model of order even after the political system is not feudal(family), o people seen to participate in human sacrifice, as well as ritualized burials with accompanying the deceased/sacrificed with their riches. When the great warriors/leaders died all the servants would also be sacrificed o origin of writing in shang dynasty o this is a form of divination which is related to the oracle bones, question would be written on the surface of the bone and the cracks would predict what the gods were telling them about the answers of these bones o started with pictographs, and then came pictures that sounded like something else o literaty- trained to read things and write o education is highly revered, the people who mastered the writing were the elites  Zhou Dynasty o First dynasty before the real consolidation of the Chinese emperor 1027-221BCE maybe o People rebelled in the shang dynasty, king of zhou, they extended their rule greater than shang o They got iron, for plows, weapons, there was a heavier reliance on infantry, war stopped being fought my nobles but rather warriors o Beginning of doctrine of mandate of heaven, the last ruler of shang dynasty had to be replaced because he wasn’t fit, heaven transferred ruling to zhou o Tian was “heaven” and zhou looked towards a view of ethics, balance and harmony o Capital is in western china, they couldn’t maintain the empire so far to the west, there is a break between western zhou and eastern zhou-Lo yung (capital) o Eastern zhou divided into Spring and Autumn period and Warring period  Because zhou power was very light, states gained power,  Kinship feudalism- king giving to his relative power  Warring States period is a bloody time 482-331  During this period came up with an agriculture system where each family got a square and central square was given to the ruler. o As the zhou grew, the commoners gained power and cities formed, the cities formed into compact states semi-governing themselves, formed a center and the rich lived in this center o Political organization of zhou dynasty disintegrate where states fight for power o Musical developments and poems come about in the zhou dynasty- fertile period  Images o Bowl with human head and fish designs  Neolithic from the Yangshao culture, the glaring face is a constant motif in the Chinese culture o Ceremonial axe, bronze and jade o Elephant shaped huo late anyang o MMW Lecture Notes China 1. The classics 2. Confucius 3. Daoism Important Terms  100 Fowers  1 Ching  Book of Songs  Kung Fu-Izu (551-479BCE)  Five Relationships  3 Submissions  Lao-tzu  Dao de
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