MMW 13 Midterm: MMW 13 – Study Guide – Midterm

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Making of the Modern World
MMW 13
Edmond Yi- Teh Chang

MMW 13 – Study Guide – Midterm Terms Introduction • Myth of European Exceptionalism: western culture is unique in chance, innovation, rationality, entrepreneurship • Theory of Cultural Diffusion: the spread of western culture would pull other cultures out of their static past • Denial of Coevalness: historical change did not factor into the histories of non-western cultures; west has always been on the track of progress; non-west doesn’t move ahead in time, and rather just stays in place; non-western places can only reach the level of western ones if they adopt western ideas and values • Polycentric Globalism: centered around not one place, but around a lot of important commercial cities • David Landes: progress is internally generated, not an accident of circumstances • Andre Gunder Frank: Europe’s success represents an anomaly in its political and economic evolution • R. Bin Wang: the context for each culture’s definition of progress is different Mongol Conquests • Physical Extent of Mongol Expansion: Caspian Sea to the west, Pacific to the east, Siberia and Korea to the north, Persia and Burma to the south; largest land empire in just 3 generations • Military Strategies: fear/intimidation; surrounding the enemy in a circle; false retreats that led the opposing side into a trap; skilled horseman and archers; siege-craft (careful about who to spare) • Impact of Medieval Climate Change: more rainfall in areas that weren’t usually conducive to agriculture, and allowed for farming further north, creating a smaller barrier between farmers and nomads than ever before • Buffer Zone Between Nomads and Settlers: became smaller due to the farmers moving further north to the new agricultural lands for farming • Genghis Khan: Mongol ruler who truly began to establish the Mongol Empire as we know of it today through successful military strategies • Outer Frontier Strategy: attack, threaten, intimidate sedentary societies in order to take resources from them; using extortion to extract wealth and resources; when they got what they wanted, they withdrew into the steppes • Jurchens in Northern China: Jin Dynasty; forced Mongols to fight instead of using outer frontier strategy • Khwarazm Shah of Iran: massacred Mongol caravan and envoys, so Genghis Khan sent an expedition in order to retailiate • Ogodei Khan: Ghengis Khan’s successor that conquered China; originally wanted to turn all of China into pasture, but later was convinced to do tax farming; low regard for peasants • Yelu Chucai: Confucian advisor who strongly encouraged these ideals in Mongol China • Mongol Tax Farming: tax the products of the farmers • Kuyuk Khan’s Letter: to Pope Innocent; if you want to be friends, you better support us and send us things, otherwise we’re going to attack you • Religious Pluralism: Islam, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Nestorian Christianity thrived under Mongol tolerance and patronage • Integration of Economic Networks: secure and efficient infrastructure for trade encouraged by the Mongols Yuan Dynasty • Khubilai Khan: Ogodei Khan’s successor; accepted role as emperor of China and founded the Yuan Dynasty • Four Khanates: four different Mongol Empires that resulted from a split after Ghengis Khan’s death • Ilkhans: Hulegu; Persia; overthrew Abbasid Empire • Golden Horde: Berke; Russia • Chagatai Khanate: Central Asia • Great Khanate: China and Mongolian heartland • Challenge of Arigh Boke: Khubilai’s younger brother who challenged him for the throne, resulting in a costly and lengthy war that ended when Khubilai cut off agricultural supplies to the north • Office for the Stimulation of Agriculture: got rid of tax farming system; government granaries; banned Mongol herds from grazing on farmland • Ortakhs: financial middle-men; Muslim-run merchant associations; given tax-collecting privileges; provided money-lending services • Yuan Paper Currency: Mongols required that paper currency be used as a conduit of trade, and that all metals be converted into paper currency when entering the empire; made of tree bark • Yambs: postal stations; equipped with horses, other animals, and boarding; used in order to send messages quickly across the empire; one every 30 miles or so • Layout of Cambaluc/Ta-tu: synthesis of Chinese and Mongolian styles; Chinese style- buildings with gardens and lakes on the palace grounds • Mongol Hierarchy of Ethnic Classes: Mongols, semuren, hanren, nanren • Semuren: non-Chinese • Hanren: Northern Chinese • Nanren: Southern Chinese • Finance Minister Ahmad: job to increase tax revenue; tended to privilege Muslims; assassinated by other members of the court • Increase in Tax Revenue: increased the number of registered households; increased taxes on merchants • State Monopolies: tea, gold, silver, alcohol • Legacy of Saiyid Ajall in Yunnan: governor of the province of Yunnan; when China took it over it was full of foreign people; taught them large-scale agriculture, never tried to convert them to Islam, educated the people, enhanced trade connections because he was a Muslim like the merchants • Jamal al-Din: astronomer from Persia; promoted the study of astronomy in the Chinese court, helped make many astronomical advancements • The Polos: Italians who came and observed Mongol China • Muslim Threats in Mongol Realm: Mongols convert to Islam, then converted their whole armies as well; Muslims given a lot of responsibility and were made targets, especially for the Christians • Accusations of Ai-Hsueh/Aixue: Christian official in the court that created anti-Muslim sentiment; made slaves/laborers bring false chargers against their Muslim masters; falsely accused a Muslim leader of a crime, and Aixue was exiled • Jasaghs; anti-Muslim laws; banning Halal slaughter and circumcision; reversed after ten years Ming Expeditions • Emperor Yongle: encouraged expansion • Admiral Zheng He: Muslim; went on many expeditions for the Dynasty • Eunuch Status: eunuchs were recruited at a young age and given a high status due to their education • Ming Treasure Fleets: 300 ships; get more tributary states; trade as a show of generosity; keep the trade routes safe from pirates; Ming China is so strong • Tian-fei: Celestial Spouse; Zheng He wrote an inscription to her thanking her for protecting him and his voyages • Tributary Systems: exchange gifts back and forth; loyalty, respect to the empire • Qilin: giraffes; thought they were mythical creates because of their long necks • Pirate Chen Zuyi: became an admiral in the Chinese government • Carrot and Stick Foreign Policy: carrot = the prospect of trade from the treasure fleets; stick = the danger and power of the fleets themselves; means of intimidation and co- optation • Malacca: reached on the first expedition • Link to Hormuz: Hormuz easy way into Middle Eastern trade, Ming controlled it • Confucian Backlash: didn’t like expansion, trade, merchants, going outside of the borders • Ming Withdrawl: after the death of Yongle too much Confucian backlash Trade Networks in East Africa • Myth of the Dark Continent: not really dark; had a lot of trade, agriculture, fishing, etc. • Meaning of the Term ‘Swahili’: the eastern coast of Africa; Swahili language blending of Bantu and Arabic; littoral, fluid culture; ethnic; Kiswahili cultural designation; • Shirazi Lineage: ethnic group on the Swahili coast • Pattern of Partial Conversion to Islam: convert to Islam in some ways, but still practice local traditions/worship other religions • Macrocosmic Consciousness: • Littoral: fluid and permeable culture; not one distinct culture/idea that prevailed over others; open-minded and accepting • Mogaidshu as Redistribution Center: stop into this port before going to the Persian Gulf • Prominence of Kilwa: trade city by Zambezi River, facilitated trade there • Zambezi River; route inland to Africa from the eastern coast • Gold and Ivory Trade: high demand in China and India for furniture and sacred objects • Gujarat Cloth Trade: Gujarat = Indian • Effect of Monsoon Winds: NE and SW; could easily and quickly travel back and forth in 3-4 weeks • Polycentric Niche Trade: everyone benefits; things flow efficiently; not much animosity Trade Networks in West Africa th • Pre 5 Century Trans Saharan Trade: small-scale, local; Berbers pillaging; oxen; salt from desert moving south to forest areas in return for produce moving north; slow and infrequent • Camel Revolution: introduced camels from Middle East, which were twice as fast and could carry twice as much, plus were well-adapted to the desert environment; allowed for more Saharan trade • Berber Nomads: in/around Sahara; looting; acting as guides • Littoral Network of the Sahel: cities that sat at the end of the desert and became conduits of trade, trade had to go through these cities • Kingdom of Ghana: conduit of trade between desert salt mines and gold fields; first to have links to the Berbers • Soninke Clan: ethnic group that settled Ghana • Kumbi Saleh: capital of Ghana; two towns; farming and fishing as well as trade; royal family on trop of social structure • Local Polytheism: royal family and a majority of people kept their practices and did not convert to Islam in Ghana • Taghaza Salt Mines: desert salt mines; trade went through Ghana • Accounts of al Bakri: Ghana; talks about the Muslims living in the Muslim town; talks about the local polytheistic idol-worshipping religion; sacrifices to the dead; taxes on salt and gold; only the king can have the gold nuggets, the people can get the gold dust; • Almoravids: North African Islamic extremists; wanted to convert everyone; wanted Sharia Law everywhere; interfered with trade • Mali Empire: did not force conversion on people; gold trade; vassalage system; Atlantic crossing? • Mandinka Clan: ethnic group that settled Mali; chiefs convert
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