MMW 13 Midterm: Midterm 2 Lecture Terms

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Making of the Modern World
MMW 13
Edmond Yi- Teh Chang

MMW 13 – Study Guide – Midterm: Lecture Terms The Portuguese Intrusion • Henry the Navigator: sovereign of Portugal; supported study of geography and navigation; funded expeditions down the African coast • Vasco da Gama: 1498 set out to explore the world and rounded the Cape of Good Hope; ravaged many African towns along the way • Don Francisco d’Almeida: analyzed the structure of the African trade network; wanted to control and monopolize the whole network, didn’t want to just trade within it • Don Alfonse d’Alboquerque: imposed system of safe transit passages • Safe Transit Passages: Portuguese required every merchant ship that sailed and traded in the Indian Ocean to purchase these passes; major source of revenue for Portuguese; if caught without one, they would take all of your goods and cut off your hands • Estado do India: Portugal’s second capital in India at Gao; one of the earliest forms of colonial administration, and blueprint for the future; Vasco da Gama viceroy; religious intolerance, ruthless intimidation • Chihuahua Complex: using aggressive attitude to advantage Spanish Conquest of the Americas • Mallinche/Dona Marina: Cortes’s Native lover and translator, who helped him negotiate with other tribes • Cuauhtemoc’s Rebellion: successful in forcing the Spanish out of the city Economic Exploitation of the Americas • Missionary Rationales for Conversion: Native American people had souls; Natives were subjects of the king, received royal charters for missions • Valladodid Debate: 1550; Natives were essentially barbarians and they were only suitable for enslavement vs. Natives are noble savages with souls, and the only reason that they are not enlightened is because they haven’t been exposed t the gospel, it is our job to expose them to Christianity • De Las Casas: started out as a conquistador, but freed his slaves and became a priest; accounts of the atrocities committed by the Spanish to the Natives; Native American advocate • The Black Legend: the horrific legend of how the Spanish treated the Natives; used by other Europeans to justify their presence in the Americas as better than the Spanish; based on De Las Casas’s accounts • Encomiendas: temporary trusteeships; plot of land and control of people on the land; Columbus introduced as an incentive to the conquistadors to settle down and make the land productive using the Natives; using the people for labor and taxing them; were supposed to assure the safety of the Natives, provide legal jurisdiction to settle complaints, in reality there was a lot of abuse • Law of Burgos: 1512; symbolic degree by Ferdinand; everybody should do their best to protect the natives • Audiencias: royal judicial oversight; u
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