MMW Final Review
German principalities: Germany was divided into around 65 imperial cities when
the Reformation broke out. Each principality responded differently, some embracing
it and some rejecting it. (German princes looked to rising middle class as their main
sources. This inspired greater political autonomy. German principalities insisted on
their own autonomy)
Church vs. civil courts: Traditional power: church. Last effort to slow down the
trend of gaining autonomy was during the Pope Boniface.
Pope Boniface: In the 14th c, he issued a bull (Clericis Laicos), which forbade lay
tazation of the clergy without prior papal approval. King Philip the Fair of France
fought back, unleashing a ruthless antipapal campaign. Bonaface made a last ditch
stand against state control of national churches in 1302 when he issued another bull
which delcared temporal authority "subject" to the spiritual power of the church. The
French responded by kicking his ass until he almost died. There was no papal
(Pope Boniface introduced two bulls, i.e. edicts. He tried to stand against the rising
tide of independence. One is the Clericis Laicos, aimed to examine the clergy from
state or local taxes. Some of these Germen princes started to pose taxes on
monasteries and churches [local parachutes]. This was the tend to protest its own
parachutes from the local control. Another one was more symbolic. Unam Sanctum
which demanded that secular rulers submitted to papal authority. It was hard to
enforce and it was the last papal effort to try to slow down the erosion of its own
power. Retaliation against this was more effective. King Philip of France retaliated
against the Pope Bonaface in 1302 by first launching a very successful antipapal
campaign, convinced other princes and kings to resist any attempt on the church. He
even sent an army expedition to threatened the Pope. )
Clericis Laicos: Forbade the tazation of the clergy without prior papal approval.
(Aimed to examine the clergy from state of local taxes. Some of these German princes
started to pose taxes on monasteries and churches [local parachutes]. This was the
tend to protest its own parachutes from the local control)
Town burghers: With the old urban nobility, this new upper class merged into an
urban patriciate in 1100. The burghers were made up of newly wealthy merchants
who fortunes came from longdistance trade. Became the new model of self
Student unions: The institutional initially referred to as a union. It referred to random
band of students gathering together for the sake of collective bargaining. This was the
origin of the university. Students gathered together to gain more clout in their demand
and in protecting their rights. What rights brought them together in the first place?
Students gathered together to against the greedy landlords who were charging too
much. Collective bargaining made the students have more influence. The Collective
bargaining was over rent and insisting getting true education, instructors qualified to teach. The students also gathered to assure the quality of education that was one way
to protect themselves.
University of Bologna: The first important Western university established in 1158. (in
Italy) It became the model for universities in Spain, Italy, and southern France. It also
gained renown for the revival of Roman law.
Petrus Vergerius: articulated the goals of the university. 'only for a select few'
(He was a professor from 15 century. At first, his writings were like propaganda of
university and liberal arts. But, there were core values that were justified. A university
education was not suited for all. Intellectual was a requirement to pursuit education. If
you are not that intellectually gifted, you should pursue medicine and law. Liberal
studies were only for the most intellectual gifted. )
Tradition of Liberal Studies: History, Moral Philosophy, and Rhetoric. History gave
us a record of what people said and did in the past. You can learn from that. Moral
philosophy showed what people can do and what people should do. Rhetoric With
knowledge, you still need to have art of persuasion to use eloquence and logic to
convey your point and thesis. In higher education today, we still have these similar
Cato the Elder vs. Domitian:
Scholasticism: The basic learning process in which people were already assumed to
know the truth. Students, then, only needed to know how to properly organize,
elucidate, and defend the truth. To do so, they wrote commentaries on authoritative
texts, especially those of Artistotle and the church fathers. Teachers would not
encourage the students to strive independently for undiscovered truth beyond the
received knowledge of the experts.
[ two assumptions: (i) Assumes truth is already known (Truth is already known.
Purpose of scholarship and learning was not to come out with new truth. The truths
have already been established. The scholars’ role was only to organize the established
truth. For this purpose, the scholars only wrote comments; some came out with new
understanding of the truth)
ii) Commentary and new methodology (When you used the methodology, when you
commented on this text, the firm of truth was no longer stable. Something has to be
changed. Pave a path to a more radical change later on)]
Thomas Aquinas: Was a 13th c scholar who made compatile the "pagan" thought (the
reasoning of Greeks such as Artistotle, who contradicted the Christian view of the
universe as it developed during the Middle Ages) and Church orthodoxy based on
[ Dominicant? Monk, who taught in University of Paris. His tradition of Medieval
Synthesis which combined the Aristotelian philosophy and Christian theology.
Tradition based on logic combined with the tradition based on faith. He was trying to
reconcile human reason with Christian faith. Faith is not simply something that you
accept as mystical. It was a more scientific way to reinforce one’s faith. They were
simply reinforcing faith through other’s means. He was using certain Aristotelian
concept to prove the existence of God. ] Medieval Synthesis: combining Aristotelian with Christian theology. Assumption:
Human reason is not capable of fully comprehending the mystery of God. Our
knowledge came from our comprehension of senses. God is beyond phenomenon
world. Human are below angles and below God. Only God can fully understand
“Summa Theologica”: Earlier Medieval thinkers condemn human reasons. Thomas
Aquinas was not condemning human reasons. He emphasized the limitation of human
reason. However, he believed that human reason could increasingly apprehend the
existence of God. He was paving a more open approach that the role of human reason
could play when it comes to faith. He gave some affirmation of some human reason
could accomplish. Summa Theologica: different arguments of how to prove the
existence of God. When he presented God as a prime mover.
God as “prime mover”: A thing can never be moved by itself. There has to be some
energy to cause the move. If that’s the case, there has to be a prime mover. He used
some physics to explain that. He borrowed from Aristotle. The prime mover has to be
God. In the phenomena world, everything has to be moved by something else. At the
end, everyone understood this prime mover had to be God. This paved the path to
Spirit of Humanism
Humanism: The scholarly study of the Latin and Greek classics and the ancient
Church Fathers, both for their own sake and to promote a rebirth of ancient norms and
values. Humanists would advocate a liberal arts program that embraced grammer,
rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and moral philosophy. Unlike their Scholastic rivals,
humanists were not content only to summarize and compare the views of recognized
authorities on a question but instead went directly to the original source and drew
their own conclusions.
[ Humanism was a movement propelled by authors and poets. They were the first to
advocate studying humanity. Humanists advocated importance of studying poetry and
oration. One of the influence advocacies was Francesco Petrarch]
Francesco Petrarch: The father of humanism, lived in the 14th century in Florence. He
left the legal profession to pursue his love of letters and poetry, celebrating his love
for ancient Rome. His critical textual studies, elitism, and contempt for the allegedly
useless learning of the Scholastics were shared by many later humanists.
[He was a great Italian poetry in 14 century. He also collected the classical
manuscripts. He looked into the classical virtues and eloquence (the ability to speak in
a very persuasive and elegant way). The virtue and eloquence came hand in hand.
Anyone who is capable to speak eloquently, he must have virtue. The early humanism
gave emphasis on the rhetoric art of oration, which would cultivate one’s virtue.
There was a key departure among early humanism. The classical manuscripts were
posted directly. He read them and interpreted them by his own analysis. There was a
much more engagement with the classics. Everything was open to be discovered for
something new. They celebrated the secular learning, nonreligious issues opposed to questions of faith or salvation]
Symbol of Cicero: the humanists drew inspiration from classical authors such as
Cicero, who demonstrated that it was possible to lead a morally virtuous life while
participating actively in the affairs of the world. Look back at the example of classical
time. Humanist bypass all the medieval ethical teachings and go back to the classical
time for inspiration.
Pico Della Mirandola: A linguist and philosopher who lived in the late 1400s, he
wrote a supreme statement in an essay about the Renaissance idolization of a man.
His exerpt talks about the top ranking of humans in the world, and how God chose
humans to have free will to become brutish like lower forms or to follow his faith and
become reborn in the afterlife.
[Human kind was the ultimate creation of God]
Art of Oration: (oration of dignity of man) says humans are the envy of angels
because angels have predetermined fate. Human kind was the ultimate creation of
God. (1) Departure from Aquinas speaks eloquently inspirational. So much passion
in the writing compared to Aquinas. Departure from scholasticism, power of rhetoric.
(2) Celebration of humanity (a) Indeterminate form; and chameleon figure no fixed
roleso could be a chameleon and shape their own destiny. Humans are the only ones
god gave a free will to. Clear gender implication. He posed the humanity as a great
miracle. Man is a great miracle as transforming himself into God. Equate humanity
with God. Human almost equal to God. (b) Placement of man at the center of the
world; by glorifying humanity they are celebrating gods creationso prochurch but
actual effect different. new truths actually poses a new threat to church. We are the
envy of angles. Who we are isn’t determined by fixed laws. We had the free will to be
who we are)
“Indeterminate form”: In the Oration on the Dignity of Man by Pico Della Mirandola,
Pico said that God wanted one more creature to admire his work. Humans were his
chosen form, called an indeterminate form because ther are placed in the middle of
the world. All other creatures are bound by some Laws, but humans have free will and
can do what they want.
[Humanastheindeterminateform.Of all God’screation,weappliedwhatwechose.
In ourinfinite potential,wehadthefreewill to decidewhichoneto cultivate.This
Free will: In Pico Della Mirandola's work "Oration of the Dignity of Man," Pico says
that God created humans with the power of free will. This meant that God placed
humans at the middle of the world, where they could observe anything in the world.
Humans were not part of heaven or hell, and they could decide their own fates. People
have the power to become brutish, or they have the power to use their judgment and
be reborn and be divine.
Centrality of humanity: Mirandola argued that God placed the human at the center of
the world. So human will be ideally positioned to appreciate the full extent of God’s
creation. Men were placed at the center.
Linear Perspective: Feature of Renaissance Arts. Adjusting the sizes of figures in a painting to give the viewer a feeling of continuity with the piece. Artists must
assumed there was vantage point and painted in the fixed vantage point. This was the
Perfect sense of symmetry and order and harmony. Vantage point was where the
artists situated themselves in depicting the scene.
Leon Alberti: In 14th century, he added a prologue to his book which credited
Florentine artists. He said that it is these men who are responsible for returning to the
study of nature as the source of art, which brought great fame to Florence. He
compares the success of Florentine artists to those of ancients. This point of view
stresses the departure from the immediate past and that of courageous experiment and
exploration, a characteristic found in Florence.
Urban Architecture: Leon Alberti's theory of architecture said that the planning of
cities should be based on a rational analysis of problems, needs, site, and climate. The
city would then inspire its citzens through order and control. Buildings were assigned
ina hierarchy based on significance. At the top were churches, the ornaments of a city.
Then were civic and mercantile buildings, and finally, private dwellings. He promoted
public housing for lower classes and wanted city fathers to prevent conspicuous
Renaissance vs. Gothic style: Gothic architecture: very ornate, mystery of complexity,
like a maze. Much of Gothic architecture wanted to show the mystery of God.
Classic Renaissance architecture: symmetry, regular, order, and linear perspective in
Ideology of social conformity: (ideological impact of linear perspective) Basically
comparing societies to figures in a portrait. The farther away the object was, the older
the society was. The closest figures were the current societies that were built off these
(Renaissance Italy. trading towns like Venice and Florance, merchants dictatorship
dominated by powerful family. Commissioned the artists, design the public spaces.
inspire a greater sense of civic duty. government 's ideological control of the public
One of the goal behind the renaissance architecture was trying to inspire people
basically follow the rule and to conform to civil order. By making public space of
particular way, to obey the law of society so public buildings are related to ideology
Teleological historical perspective: There was a greater tendency that the people
looking in the history by a fixed vantage point. This was the way to justify the
superior status of the European. This also stepped into the colonial perspective.
Historians assumed a fixed vanishing point into the distant future. Using the paradigm
of linear perspective to understand history. Teleological: the end of the goal. Inspire
the later notions of God was on their side when European came to colonize certain
areas. The sense of the history was towards the ultimate goal, the European’s
supremacy all over the world.
Filippo Brunelleschi: He won a competition for the commission of a cathedral dome
that dominates Florence. He was thus introduced to the world as a scientist, inventor,
and designer. He employed a system that suspended an interior shell from the exterior
structure of ribs and concealed buttresses that originated in Roman and Gothis technology. He did not use an enormous amount of wooden centering.
(He used order and symmetry of architecture. He was an architecture, inventor, and
designer. He wanted to evoke a sense of intellectual control rather than mystic
Leonardo Da Vinci: He personified the Renaissance ideal of the universal person, one
who is not only a jackofalltrades, but also a master of many. He disected corpses to
study anatomy and was a selftaught botanist, in addition to being a military engineer
and an advocate of scientific experimentation. He forsaw airplanes and submarines.
As a painter, his great skill lay in conveying inner moods through complex facial
features, such as in the Mona Lisa.
[He was the consummate “Renaissance Man”. He was good at arts, music and
literature. The most important contribution was to show men how to remove
mountains and move from one level to another—overcome the natural barrier of the
world. Changing relationship between humanity and nature. Increasing exploiting of
Marsilio Ficino: ecological perspective. He talks about humanist view on nature.
Relationship between man and nature. What role does man have in relation to nature?
“Vicar of God” idea: sees man as overseer. Ties in to what humanists stand for.
Affirms humanity. Ties into linear perspective and control and being placed at center
of the world.
Ecological perspective of the Renaissance: In celebrating humanity, there was an
increasing assumption that human kinds were created to explore all the natural
resources. Human kinds were to conquest the nature. The predominated assumption of
the goal of humanism was to fully conquer the nature, supremacy of human kinds
over nature itself.
Luther and the Protestant Reformation
German nationalist sentiments: small German monarch, had relationship with the empire
Many members of the German royal families seem the empire as the responsible for all the
whoever can pay the most for the offices...
For the German Princes, it was the great opportunity to enhance own holdings, own wealth if
they were able to expel some of the clergy from the area, they could take over the monster,
could also impost taxes on some of the churches. to enhance the economical well-beings
Emperor Charles V: Charles V's concession in 1526needed to concede to same things
so that the german princes would still fight for him. So said each prince could either
do diet of worms or not. (a) Peace of Augsburg in 1555 becomes standard protocol
that german princes have religious freedom.
Diet of Worms: Diet of Worms 1521 (four years after 95 theses). Forced to recount
his views, luther. But he said no because of the scripture and his own conscience. So
there was a ruling that no one was allowed to harbor him
Peace of Augsburg 1555: princes have religious freedom. Ruler of a land would determine the religion of the land.
German Peasant Revolts 152425: luther took sides of princes and told them to
suppress peasants. Religious equality Not social equality
Gutenberg Bible: prints bible. now church does not control all knowledge. Also now
have a more efficient postal system. So now reformers could be in closer contact.
Starts the age of the printed book and allows people to have access to bible. scholars
gained access to a dependable, standardized text.
Desiderius Erasmus: the prince of humanists. Aspired to unite the the classical ideals
of humanity and civic virtue with the Christian ideals of love and piety. Disciplined
study of bible and classics was best way to reform individual and society. He made a
greek edition of the new testament which martin luther used this and his other work
for his famous german translation. He is a clergy member debate with luther against
Debate over free-will : humanism celebrate one of the gift of humanity--free will, to
choose own destiny
free will to him was the threat that any individual would faced
as making one more vulnerable to the faith
forceful against, if you believe in free will, you are rejecting the training of the ..itself
no matter how diligent toward faith if one did not accept the grace of god first
Martin Luther: He received his master of arts degree in 1505 and registered with the
law faculty but never went through with studying law. He experienced a lightening
storm in which he cried out to Saint Anne that if he survived, he would promise to
enter a monastry. He got his doctorate in theology and became a leader within the
Order of Hermits: Luther was an Augustan Monk who was part of this. He was
product of humanism. Challenged truth. However, was antihumanist in spirit, said no
free will. Destiny in gods hands alone. Started out studying law but decides to join
this monastic order, ended by getting a PHD in theology
Started by training as a lawyer, then had a personal experience of spiritual wakening
decided to join the order of hermits
“The Just Shall Live By Faith Alone” : faith solely through scriptures. Need internal
“NinetyFive Theses” : it was response to Jubilee indulgence. Protested especially
against the impresson creared by tetzel that indulgences remitted season and released
dead from punishment. Theses made him famous over night.
Jubilee Indulgence 1517: Collusion of Pope Leo X, Archbishop Albrecht, and
Banking House of Fugger (2) John Tetzel an expert speaker at getting people to buy
indulgences. Church said buying jubilee indulgences could clear you of all sins.
“Treasury of Merit”: what church argued it had. Its an abstract reservoir of merit, of
grace, was willing to share it with those who bought indulgences
Temporal vs. eternal penance
John Tetzel: he was indulgence preacher. Enlisted to preach the indulgence in
albrechs terrioties because he was a seasoned professional who knew how to stir
ordinary people to action.
Letters of Indulgence: Luther object to was about this practice. Letters of indulgence
was the practice of the church that people would buy these letters of indulgence as a
way of illuminating the penalty for sins that they had to perform. Another way they
used was to buy for relatives
Reformer or rebel? : he said that Jubille indulgence go beyond what is acceptable
challenge: if indeed that church had so called treasury of merit, why not just release
why not use church own wealth to build Peter...--main agenda behind 95 thesis
never luther intend to break from the church
if his action had be the affect of creating the slit in the church, that was mostly
luther most submit the 95 thesis to a private group of church official, for them to sit
down at negotiating table
Reactions to Luther’s Protestant Reformation
John Calvin: he was a French lawyer who converted to Protestantism. He organized a
protestant community and worked with local officials to impose a strict code of
morality and discipline in the city. Geneva was a model protestant community and
also a missionary center. The "Consistory" in Geneva: calvin and his followers tried
to make society godly. Thought elect should live godpleasing life, if they are truly
God's elect. Strict moral discipline. Protestant "work ethic"
The “Consistory” in Geneva:
Protestant “work ethic”
Council of Trent (15451563): (15451563): was an assembly of bishops, cardinals etc
to address matters of doctrine and reform. The council defined the elements of roman
catholic theology in detail. Took steps to reform the church. Demanded that church
authorities observe strict standards of morality. Required them to establish schools
and seminaries in their districts to prepare priest properly for their roles. Drew heavily
on works of THOMAS AQUINAS>
Reaffirmation of Church doctrines: outcome of council of trend
------crise body--symbolically and physically present in the .....
secret, church continued to refuse to allow lay people to administrate, having a lay
person to go out, but ritual represent