Second midterm

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University of California - San Diego
Making of the Modern World
MMW 13
Edmond Chang

Review of midterm 2 Iberian Race for Trade Routes—lecture 10 1. Ferdinand and Isabella King and Queen of Spain; commissioned and funded Columbus's expedition 2. Columbus’s Expedition 1492 Proposed sailing to markets of Asia by western route. He thought he could reach Japan, and sought royal sponsorship from Portuguese court, but was denied. Isabella of Spain commissioned him and he thought he reached the spice islands called the Indies, but he had actually reached the Bahamas. Significant because it paved way for conquest and exploitation of Americas by European peole 3. Cipangu The English word for Japan came to the West from early trade routes. The early Mandarin Chinese or possibly Wu Chinese word for Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. 4. Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 divided the "newly discovered" lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa). This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already Portuguese) and the islands "discovered" by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Spain), named in the treaty as Cipangu and Antilia (Cuba and Hispaniola). The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Spain. 5. Prester John Prester John myth--a Christian moner to the east hoping to make contact with Prester John to bring about Christian and try to convert Islam Gama carried a letter with him from Portuguese moner address to Prester John in case he found him Gama for the most parts, find spice, also found Christian, but not the Christian that they were hoping to find 6. Conspicuous Consumption of Spices spices as "status symbols" and "emblems of power" 7. Cape Bojador just south of the Canary Islands, represented a point of no return 8. Prevailing Trade Winds 1) trade wind--blow from east to the west 2) Westerly wind form west to east, make it difficult to head south.  difficult for the vessel to heading south cause they could sail but hard to return Gradual understanding of patterns of prevailing winds and currents (1) Point of no return—Cape Bojador (2) African Atlantic expeditions---because of prevailing winds 9. Volta do Mar “Volta do Mar” or “return through the sea” sailing down, but on the return journey, to go with the wind, took northwestern route 10. Raiding and trading along W. Africa Stiff resistance from the local chieftains--prefer trading than raiding west tribes had more formidable army to attack European group better trade than force 11. Azores first set up sugar plantation, setting up population, island-hopping 12. Cape Verde Islands Uninhabited archipelago of Cape Verde Islands was crucial to further expansion and was colonized in 1460s 13. Canary Islands heavily populated--set up for expenditure center for the products of both wine and sugar 14. Disenclavement long time isolated, by with the arrival of European let the isolated island in to the social world 15. Guanche Indigenous Population in the Canary island--Guanche Portuguese people came--Guanche 800,000--100,000 barber with north Africa, share the common ancestors resistance European coming---lose contact with the world, no immunity of the disease Guanche---use as slave of the sugar plantation in Azerio use as slave to build ship 16. Sugar Plantations  Use remaining Guanche as slaves to work in the sugar plantations in Azores. 17. Blueprint for Conquest The Canary Islands—Colonial Blueprint for the Americas The Portuguese Intrusion—Lecture 11 1. Peripheral status of Portugal Portugal was a poor state; No more than 1 million people; went all out b/c they didn't really have much to lose 2. Prince Henry the Navigator Portuguese prince sponsored a series of voyages down the west African coast Merchants established trading posts at Sao Jorge da Mina—exchanged European horses, leather for gold and slave 3. Reasons for Exploration 4. Economic 5. Religious Economic: African Gold and Slave Trade; Catalan Map; incentive for Europeans to tap into the resources; Indian Ocean as the "crossroads" of world system Religious: Perceived Threat of Dar al-Islam; European fear of Islam; Persistent crusader mentality; Religion was more a symbolic factor; not the main factor 6. Vasco da Gama 1498 Portuguese; first to make contact with Indian Ocean region; no friendly encounters with natives; atmosphere of mutual antagonism and suspicion --Calicut Gaspar Correa wrote about the brutality of Vasco da Gama; "Cut off their ears, hands and noses" 7. Trade Monopoly in Indian Ocean Portuguese issued safe transit passes; one must buy them in order to pass through and be able to trade or else Portuguese will confiscate goods and chop off hands 8. “Choke points” or transfer points Portuguese controlled these transfer points by using intimidation and extortion; port of Hormuz was an important choke point 9. D’Almeida in Kilwa New crop of “colonial-soldier-administrators” like Dom Francisco D’Almeida 1502; Portuguese only had 2 dozen warships; tried to control choke points; orders king to come out and meet him; provides pitiful tribute (goats, cow) that didn't satisfy king; succeed in pillaging place --In Mombasa key trade link between South Africa and India; well-armed; resisted but Portuguese burned place down and D'Almeida said to loot everything; sailor could keep 20% --Strait of Hormuz Port of Hormuz 1508 Hormuz---mouth of Persian gulf 10. Refuge in palm grove in Mombasa When the Verraudex, the captain of Portugal came in to Mombasa, all the people of the town were taken to this palm grove, and the entrance was guarded by many archers 11. King of Mombasa’s letter to King of Malindi sultan wrote a letter to malindi--Mombasa had just ended war between them since malindi ally with Portuguese the purpose was to inform Malindi that a great lord has passed through the town. Gave sad news for Malindi’s own safety 12. Estado do India (state of India) in 1510; Portugal's 2nd capital @ Indian city of Goa; Vasco da Gama becomes viceroy of this state 13. Viceroyalty in Goa Da Gama becomes viceroyal of Estado do India (State of India) in 1510; Portugal's second capital at the Indian city of Goa 14. Don Afonso d’Alboquerque main architect of aggressive Portuguese policy—equipped with artillery on the vessel, overpower others his fleets seized Hormuz, Goa and Melaka 15. Safe transit passes Don Afonse d’Alboquerque—main architect of this aggressive policy Portuguese adminstrator Policy: Portuguese require every merchant ship would need to pay safe-conduct pass. Ship without passes were subject to confiscation 16. Gaspar Correa One of Da Gama's sailors that wrote an account demonstrating Da Gama's brutality and use of ruthless intimidation; Da Gama wanted to avenge some Portuguese killed in Caluka so he captures 20 unarmed Merchant ships carrying rice and chops off the Muslims' ears, hands, and noses and places parts in a boat with message "Why don't you make a curry out of these parts?" 17. Demise of Portuguese Monopoly --a) Acts of a desperate, aggressive, peripheral power chasing a grand ambition ----i) The element of surprise and extreme methods anyone wanting to monopolize the trade --b) Yet, Portugal could not sustain this hegemony for long 16th century, Portugal control most ----i) Conflicting interests at home religious interest and mercantile interest what is the true purpose? slave used as economic resource or convert them, since after convert them, cannot conduce them ------(1) Portuguese man-of-wars serving as “armored transport” for merchants ----ii) Resurgence of Islamic Power --c) The Indian Ocean Network by the 17th century return to the stituation before Portugese entered no central power---interdependent polycentrial network 18. Sultanate of Oman Spanish Conquest of the Americas—Lecture 12 1. Social status of the Conquistadors Spanish tended to be from margins of Euro economy; minor titles but no land --> desperation for gold; outnumbered and isolated --> propensity to take outrageous risks 2. Dona Marina (La Malinche) Translator and negotiator for the Spanish; turned against Aztecs; played crucial role in allowing Spanish to conquer Aztecs 3. Hernan Cortes Spanish explorer/conqueror; captured Tenochtitlan and kidnapped emperor Motecuzoma; greedy for gold 4. Moctezuma Emperor of Tenochtitlan; treated Cortes as an equal (mistake!); aware that Cortes had already sacked another city for not cooperating so wanted to get on his good side by giving Spaniards gold but just made them want more gold 5. Francisco Pizarro Pizarro’s tactics in the Inca capital of Cuzco follow the similar pattern murder all of them, high risk action but odious that led to success 6. Atahualpa Abduction of Atahualpa; Pizarro organized a fake peace conference within Inca capital of Cuzco --> kills all (brutal and shocking behavior parallel to behavior of Spanish conquerors) 7. Quetzalcoatl Fatalism of Motecuzoma: the Aztecs associated the Spaniards with the return of Quetzalcoatl (the feathered serpent) b/c they had shiny armor, horses, and ships they've never seen before 8. Aztec Tributary System used intimidation and extortion to extract tribute (very harsh and extreme); way for Aztecs to maintain political prestige and authority; believed human sacrifice renew energy that comes from sun which was their source of power; made subjects hate them more --> crop failures, increased revolts, spread of disease 9. Function of human sacrifice Renewed energy of sun, which was their source of power; more blood = better chance of revitalizing sun and their power 10. Huitzilopochtli The name of the sun god for which the Aztecs have a festival for. During one of these festivals a Spanish captain massacres Aztec warriors and priests. This provoked an all-out Aztec attacked on the Spaniards 11. Tlaxcala 12. Sahagun’s Account of Aztec Resistance Sahaun eye witness, translate account of the activities account hided as secret by Spanish--no access to this account Spaniard entered, 450 soldier who companied by ally locate population by the horses--surprise, shock 13. Cuanhtemoc Resistance led by Moctezuma’s successor, Cuauhtemoc successor take back the city after overwhelming success believe Spanish was over 14. Pedro Alvarado Pedro Alvares Cabral’s arrival on the coast of Brazil noticed a conducive place for planting sugar main supplies of sugar--important role of Brazil Hadi--important source of sugar applied plantation system to another cash crops 15. Siege of Tenochtitlan ----i) The return of Cortes took apart the ships, deny the return journey, need the wood to build small vessel city was built on the water thinking that water can protect them, effective before the come of spanish cutting off all supply for the city, starve them to death, also no drinking water trying to survived to eat tree.... ----ii) Final defeat in 1521 after three-month siege try to break out the block the most important factor---disease, smallpox--led to the final Aztec 16. Impact of small-pox inhabitant of America had no immunity towards disease Pura--lost 70% population Mexico--lost 90% population that died from disease Economic Exploitation of the Americas—Lecture 13 1. Colonial rationale: Missionaries vs. Conquistadors ----i) Rationale for Conversion early Spanish missionary argued native Amercian people had souls, should be converted European follow the classic aristotelian distinction that people base on race whether or not they have souls---to determine who deserve conversion ------(1) Aristotelian distinction between native American peoples and Africans spaniard argued that native American tribes were all people with souls unlike the African. Black African are less than human and thus did not have souls and can be used as slave. self-serving distinction that all European in missionary used Sum: these people have souls therefore should be convert --------(a) Expedient racist rationale? ----ii) 2nd Rationale: Protect native Americans as subjects of the King ------(1) Royal charters for missionary communities huge die-off among native population, set up missionary communities, trying to protect the population from further abuse, trying to slow down the rate of attrition among native population.the Spanish crown gave charter to these missionary 2. Readiness of natives for conversion Aritotelian distinction between native American people and Africans. Europeans  followed the Aritotelian distinction, based on race whether they have soles.  Important perspective in determining who deserves conversion. American people  all have soles and should be converted. 3. “The Black Legend” Taint on Spanish history; take local chiefs and try to take wealth by slowly burning them; kill in groups of 13 (honor Jesus and 12 disciples); emphasize greed of conquistadors; no mention of disease 4. Bartolome De Las Casas b) Champion of this cause: De Las Casas (1474-1566) ----i) Personal background lived long--92yrs defend the native population one of the conquistadors, Columbus's third expedition. owning land and receive the tribute but later, renounce his position, protect the population of the native ----ii) Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies ------(1) Basis of “The Black Legend” the black legend--tradition abuse in the hand of spaniard ------(2) Graphic accounts of Spanish atrocities in the Caribbean it was De Las Cassas that made people back to spain aware some of these acts and trying to appeal how could we call ourselves when our fellow commited such acts kill 15 million, also caused by disease. De Las Cassas made no mention of disease, but blame on the Spaniards. Disease is a major killer 5. Disingenuous efforts of conversion Using Christianity to save souls or using the new converts to save the Catholic Church? main goal-convert the native, and the conquistador tried to accomplished how eager the native to embrace the gospel, embrace the faith But spaniard had no sincerity to spread Christanity to these local population, force them--wrong way cause people already have eager to embrace the new faith e.g. spaniard raiding party approach a new village in the jungle, proclaim the warning (if not convert to Christantiy, we have the right to take out all property)--to show that the crown should devote more resources to the missionary not to the conquistador if the real goal was to convert the native population 6. Encomiendas provisional trustee ships/grants (Spanish American version of timars); soldiers receiving grants from crown to use labor (supposed to be temporary); tax collection/tribute collection; supposed to protect life and property of subjects 7. Audiencias university-trained bureaucrats; deal with complaints of natives; punishment for convicted encomiendas very minor 8. New Law of 1542 Encomiendas gradually transferred to Crown; drastic fall of native population, crown feared loss of authority, WINDFALL WITH DISCOVERY OF SILVER 9. Trial of Juan Ponce 10. Silver mines at Potosi and Zacatecas amount of silver had tripled in world economy; Spain became more dominant military power and could combat forces of Protestant Reformation; had commodity that Asia market coveted; could deal with Ottomans 11. Quinto 20% of silver goes to crown; show
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