Comprehensive Notes for the FInal

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Making of the Modern World
MMW 13
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Medieval Scholasticism1 German principalities German towns led by German princes German princes looked to rising middle class for support whereas in the past they looked to the church or the Hapsburg royal family This inspired greater political autonomy from the Hapsburg and the church2 Church vs civil courts Church courts which had always dominated European society was now being challenged by civil courts Magistrates wanted legal jurisdiction among the populace because of its economical importancelegal jurisdiction gets revenues fees and fines Since these towns wanted greater administrative economies it created a need for bureaucrats which led to the rise in European universities The church was the channel of grace where people go to for salvation They would be charged for the rituals and inheritance giving the church power over the laws of inheritance The church had monopolies over the rites of passage They made sure that they were central in the lives of its members When towns came about they saw the governing of inheritances as a secular matter For the first time beginning around the 13th century the church courts were being challenged by the civil courts Many of these towns wanted the jurisdiction to be among the populace giving them more revenue and more control over it3 Pope Boniface The pope who tried to slow down the trend of greater autonomy from the churchHe introduced two decrees the clericis laicos term below and the unam sanctum which demanded that secular rulers submit themselves to papal authority symbolic in nature This was the last papal attempt to slow down the erosion of church powerPope Bonifaces decrees caused King Philip of France retaliation antipapal campaign he sent a military expedition against Pope Boniface used army to threaten Pope resist Churchs attempt to assert control Result irreversible tilt in favor of national monarchies and principalitiesPope from 1294 to 1303 He had conflicts with King Philip IV of France Nation states were expanding and rulers were looking to consolidate their power King Philip taxed the clergy and Pope Boniface took offense to the taxations King Philip responded by not allowing the exportation of money from France to Rome launching a antipapal campaign4 Clericis Laicos Edict made by Pope Boniface One of the Churchs desperate attempts at asserting its authorityThis decree was aimed to exempt clergy from taxes bc German princes were imposing taxes on Vatican and church in order to protect the churchs own parishes from local control 5 Town burghers Merchantclass town dwellers They were members of council that were usually elected They were the leaders of the towns and gained more powerpolitical voice that correlated with the greater degree of urbanization They represented the gradual ascendancy of a middle class6 Student unions a random band of students that got together in complaint against high charges rents from landlords They came together for the sake of collective bargaining to have more clout in their demands and rights against greedy landlords and also to assure the quality of their education professional teachers Formed one of the first academic institutions University of Bologna in order to fulfill the need of towns for lawyers and administrators since most literates were part of the church 7 University of Bologna The oldest first European university charted Located in Italy est 1158 It became the model for universities in Spain Italy and Southern France Also gained renown for the revival of Roman Law 8 Petrus Vergerius A professor who tried to promote the universityliberal arts systemHe said a university education is a privilege not equipped for all The people who arent intellectually equipped should instead pursue medicine and law or trade rather than liberal arts9 Tradition of Liberal Studies Liberal studies includes history moral philosophy and rhetoric Higher education liberal studies should include well rounded studies critical reasoning in writing and speech and training that entails counter arguments Most of higher education still centers on a lot of this 10 Cato the Elder vs Domitian Domitian was a roman emperor who in old age could only kill flies in his leisure because he did not cultivate a love of learning whereas Cato the Elder had cultivated a love for learning so he never felt like his life lacked meaning He had a lasting companionship with books Vergerius used this example to reflect the importance of liberal studies 11 Scholasticism The tradition of scholasticism assumes that the truth is already known and absolute The purpose of learning was not to come up with new truths instead it is about elucidating these established truths Scholastics wrote commentaries on classic texts and came up with new methods to come up with established truths This was a slippery slope in that the truth was no longer stable which paved the path for more radical changes later on part of the humanistrenaissance traditionDefinition the system of theology and philosophy taught in medieval European universities based on Aristotelian logic and the writings of the early Church Fathers and having a strong emphasis on tradition and dogma12 Thomas Aquinas Dominican monk in the 13th CE who was responsible for the tradition of the Medieval synthesis term below He assumes human reason is not fully capable of understanding the mystery of God Human intellect cannot match angelic intellect which cannot encompass divine intellect God is far beyond the phenomenal world only he can understand himself His most important work was the Summa Theologica 2 terms below13 Medieval Synthesis Synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy and Christian philosophy He combined human reason and Christian faith Aquinas tried to give
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