Comprehensive Notes for Midterm

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Department
Making of the Modern World
Course
MMW 13
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Iberian Race for Trade Routes Spain and Portugal area1 Ferdinand and Isabellamonarchs in Spain who commissioned columbus also joined together SpainMaya Isabella and Ferdinand were confident from their recent defeat of the Spanish moors reason to find a shorter route to India landed in San Salvador east Bahamas2 Columbuss Expedition 1492accidently stumbled across the new world thinking he landed in AsiaMaya Columbus sailed across the Atlantic from the Castilian colony to the Canary Islands3 Cipangu Japan Columbus thought he stumbled upon the islands of Cipangu Japan when he discovered the AmericasMaya Outer islands of Cipangu or new continent Outlying islands of Japan is where he thought he was 2nd expeditionrealization that this was a new continent4 Treaty of Tordesillas 1494cut the world up between spain and portugaleast was portuguese west was spain including canary islands azores and Cape Verde Islands the line was more favorable for spain portuguese was unhappy so they redrew the lineMaya Between Spaniards and the Portuguese Pope Alexander VI negotiated an agreement that drew a line 100 miles west of the Cape Verde islands EastPortugal WestSpainIS THE TREATY THE REDRAWING OR THE ORIGINAL BY POPE ALEXANDERPope Alexander negotiated with the Spaniards and Portuguese the previous year in 1493 when He made the unfair line draw The treaty of 1494 was the new contract that extended the eastern line more West so that the Portuguese could have more control5 Prester JohnMythical Christian king who supposedly dwelled in Africa The Christians were looking for him but his feigned existence was really an excuse to exploit and visit AfricaMaya Extend Christendom to challenge the spread of IslamPrester John myth Hope to make contact with him and his kingdom to bring about a Christian alliance and curb the spread of Islam1498 Vasco de Gama reached Calicut India Carried a letter from Portuguese monarch addressed to Prester John looking for spices found them and a sect of St Thomas Christians who the Portuguese persecuted as heretics6 Conspicuous Consumption of Spicespepper nutmeg and cinnamon prestigious goods more for show status items the desire began from the crusades came from middle east indiaMaya Its not about the consumption but making the possession of these spices visible in order to demonstrate wealth and social status in society A spice platter would be passed around to their guests to demonstrate their refinement and class They were often given as coveted giftsPeppercorn nutmeg cinnamon as status symbols and emblems of power Spices were displayed and then consumed The moderation and excess in which they were served attested the hosts social rank7 Cape Bojadorcape on western sahara its the point of no return trade route where they werent able to sail back home used volta do mar meaning by seas manipulation of trade winds and currentsto return home because at cape bojador had winds only blowing in one direction explains why African merchants could not sail up the coastMaya Point of no return For the longest time the spot Portuguese sailors would always turn back at was just south of the Canary Islands because south of that point winds would blow them out west to the Atlantic where they had no method of returning If they wanted to return they would have to do so by land8 Prevailing Trade Windsthe prevailing winds helped sailors get across waters faster and easier if used at the right time however the prevailing winds in places such as Cape Bojador prevented sailors from sailing northMaya It took a while for the Portuguese to understand the nature of the prevailing winds Closer to the south of the equator winds blew from east to west Above the equator winds blew from west to east westerlies9 Volta do Mar return through the sea instead of trying to hug the coast on the return journey once they made this breakthrough they could sail as far as they wanted along the African coastMaya Return through the sea What they learned to do was to sail down and on the return journey go with the northwestern winds until they hit the westerlies which would take them right back the Iberian peninsula There was a risk of sailing out into the open ocean hoping they would catch the right winds to take them back Once they made this breakthrough they could sail as far as they wanted along the African coastline because they return journey was found10 Raiding and trading along W AfricaJohn thorton africa was a piece meal exploration of atlantic coastlineIt was better to trade because they came across strong resistance from the local chieftains meaning trade vs plundering through this process they were able to increase some of their financial resources and fund some of their longer expeditions
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