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Study Guide for Final.docx

Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 11
Page Dubois
Study Guide

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Study Guide for India
Indus valley civilization- 19th century was when this was discovered. Near the indus river and the
Ganges, the two cities in this civilization were Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, this was located in
Punjab and Pakistan, culture disappeared some believe by deforestation or change in climate or
change in flow of river, larger than Egypt and Mesopotamia, no evidence of political organization,
Aryans- (menas noble) they were from indo-european tribes, some went to india and some to Europe,
they were nomadic pastorals, they later became more militaristic and were led by rajas and had
cavalries (1500bce), women here were held in higher regard, found dehli, tribal chiefdomships
became kingships, assemblies governed them, their sacred language was sanskrit, had religion-Indra
their war god, didn’t have central govt but chiefdomships, made caste system,
Indo-European- people who migrated from the European area and came to india, Aryans were
considered indoeuropean,
Varna- use to refer to major social classes, refers to color in Sanskrit, distinctions arose from the
complexion of Aryans and dravidians, four main varnas- Brahmins(priests), Kshatriyas(warriors and
aristocrats), Vaishyas(cultivators), Shudras (peasants and serfs) and untouchables, had rules about
marrying into other castes, body of purusa made this,
?Mahavira- he was a Kshatriya who was an important voice in Jainism, he starved himself to death
because he was so committed to ahimsa, teacher, Left Kshatriya at age of 30 to seek salvation and
escape cycle of reincarnation Wandered the Ganges valley for 12 years, abandoned all worldly
goods sand taught ascetic doctrine of detachment from world to his disciples
Karma- the actions that shape your life, from the teachings of the upanishads, karma accounted for
specific incarnations that souls experienced, a man of good acts will become good and vice versa
(Brhadaranyaka Upanishad), used this to explain the caste system, also involved samsara which was
that we were in a cycle of birth and rebirth where souls would go to the world of the fathers and then
to earth in new incarnations based on karma, with good karma you achieved moksha- deep dreamless
sleep that came with liberation from physical incarnation
Vishnu-he was in the Mahabharata, he was the preserver of the world who intervened frequenty on
behalf of virtuous individuals, rama was an incarnation of Vishnu, main vedic god,
Rig Veda- collection of songs, has the gods of the vedic people, it means praise knowledge, it has
what priests were chanting (1028 hymns), indra is the king of the gods, god of war and weather, great
emphasis on ritual, priests became more powerful, called in peoples houses to perform rituals,
microcosm(you are a part of the universe), has hymns to various gods and natural phenomenon,
prayers praising gods, prayers about rituals and prosperity, still used today by hindus, theme was
preciousness of animals,
Ashoka- grandson of Chandragupta who founded mauryan empire, ruled through bureaucracy,
advocated Buddhism (after conquering kallinga turned to buddhism to stop violence), he had a
espionage system, he wrote his beliefs on big rocks in his empire, he was a great example of
tolerance and Buddhism, embeddness,

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?Atman- this was the word for self but becomes everything, this is the microcosm and macrocosm
relationship, the individual soul or essence, part of the samkhya philosophy which says that the
divided universe is more focused on the atman of the self, everyone has their own purusa, Focus
shifted away from priests and their ability to sacrifice Sacrifices moved into people’ homes and
eventually into the “self” of individual
Upanishads taught each person participates in a larger cosmic order and forms small part of
the universal soul, Brahman, the eternal unchanging reality that transcends worldly existence.
Ultimate goal - escape cycle of birth and rebirth into illusionary world and enter the Brahman
Ahimsa- Buddhism and Jainism focused on this, Jainism’s main thing was ahimsa which is
nonviolence, concern of the welfare of every being on the universe, Mahavira starved himself to
death because he was so committed to ahimsa, they could not eat animals and had to sweep areas
before they walked, couldn’t be farmers because of this, must practice in order to become ready to
do yoga
Soma- a god of the vedic people who was hallucinogenic, a hallucinogen could have been associated
with this god, indra is known as the king of gods and great soma drinker, rig veda calls it the god of
the gods, has energizing quality, if you drink soma you become immortal according to vedas, gods
drink in copious amounts,
Four Noble Truths- buddha’s dharma(teaching), The four noble truths were the truth of suffering
(human existence is suffering because of inevitable separation from what we want), truth of cause of
suffering (the desire leads to suffering and rebirth), truth of cessation of suffering (suffering ceases
with cessation of thirst), truth of the path toward the cessation of suffering, (follow the eight fold
Eight-fold Path- right belief, resolve, speech(not lie), behavior(ahimsa), occupation, effort,
contemplation, meditation, only they will you reach a state of perfect spiritual
independence(nirvana), 8 beliefs thhings one should do to attain nirvana
Mohenjo-daro- developed in the indus, chief city in the indus, near indus river and ganges, in Punjab
and Pakistan, no evidence of political org, city walls, there were centers of political authority where
taxes were collected, had large pools maybe for ritual purposes, no royal palaces, worshipped
animals, culture disappeared some people believe by deforestation, change in climate, or change in
flow of river,
Mahabharata- seeked to offer a total account of culture, theme is the nature and fundamental
contradictions of political power, and recounts the struggle for the throne between two groups of
cousins, written by Krishna Vyasa the father of Pandu and Dhritarashtra, political power is the main
focus, “man is slave to power”, the Pandavas seek to establish an independent kingdom which angers
Duryodhana, who then challenges yudhistira to a dice game, the metaphor is exemplified in this that
power itself is a gamble and a symptom of the human frailties in everyone, shows how uncertain life
can be like the throw of a dice, leads to the war, battle between the cousins, struggle between
power, cousins strive to understand law, what is dharma

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Ashoka’s Edicts- the emperor left rock-inscriptions at sites, some were conciliatory messages to the
newly conquered people of kalinga, these edicts describe the expansion of Buddhism, used these to
develop the dharma throughout his kingdom, most of his edicts talk about the spread of Buddhism
and conversion to Buddhism, and his moral and religious percepts and the social and animal welfare
of his program.
Kautilya- from the Treatise of Power- this is about Ashoka and the mauryan empire and how one
should govern, says that secret agents should guard the prince, talks about the conduct of a prince in
disfavor and how secret agents should stop a prince from doing things not right,
Rock Edict 13- Ashoka from Inscriptions- This has to do with how Ashoka conquered Kalinga and
felt great sorrow after seeing what he had done to their people, this is why he takes up Buddhism, he
talks about how many people are suffering and how it is affecting ashoka, he tells people to take up
Buddhism, follow Dharma,
Rock Edict 4- Ashoka tells his people that they should practice ahimsa or nonviolence, he says
killing animals is cruel and people should stop, talk about ashoka and Buddhism how he took it up,
Kalinga, Inscriptions
Pillar Edict 7- This is where he talks about the spread of dharma and that everyone should follow this
but he was lenient towards other practices,
Rock Edict 8- ashoka will go on pleasure tour where he spreads the teachings of dhrama, he helps the
Brahmagiri Rock Edict II- what one should do, they should obey their fathers and mothers, respect
life, speak the truth, practice dharma,
Kalinga Edict 21- trust me and practice dharma,
Qin Dynasty-demilitarization of the interior, no armies or generals inside the empire which prevented
rebellion, legalist government, lord shang was advisor, first emperor was shihuangdi, he united china,
standardized weights, currencies, roads, divided empire into provinces where he had civil servants
govern them, he was a legalist who didn’t trust Confucians and had them buried alive, had
centralized bureaucratic rule throughout, weakened economic positions of aristocratic class by giving
individual cultivators land rights, great tomb for shihuangdi
Tao- this was center of all chinese philosophies, confucius thought that we must go back to dao,
daoists thought that we could live in harmony with the dao, Dao- order of the cosmos, things the way
they should ought to go, the right way of things, daoists believed it to be a wind that blows through
everything, the way of nature, figures as the force of the cosmos, an eternal and unchanging
principle that governs all the workings of the world
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