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Midterm

MMW 11 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Minoan Civilization, Pastoralism, Chthonic


Department
Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 11
Professor
Page Dubois
Study Guide
Midterm

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MMW11MidtermStudyGuide
Remember,filloutasmuchasyoucanaboutlocatingdataandsignificance.Highlightorbold
clearlyanyquestionsyouhave,andIwillmakesuretheyareansweredbyWednesdayevening
before9pm.
Goodluck!
Ellen
Hiall!I’llbewritingtoyouinthiscolor!Ellen
Isthetesttomorrowinlecturehall?
Yes,thetestwillbeinthelecturehall.Please
remembertobringablankbluebookandsomethingtowritewith.
EvolutionandPrehistory:
Justsomewordsofadviceaboutsomeoftheterms:someofthemwillhaveshorteranswers
thanothers(i.ebipedalism,Ur,etc).Don’toverthinkit.Someofthemaresimplyimportantas
theyrelatetohumanhistory.Everythingwilllinktothecoursethemeofthegainsandlossesin
the“progressionofsocieties”ifthathelpsyoutotrytodiscusstheirsignificance. 
● bipedalismlocomotionbyusingtworearends(beingabletowalkwithyourtwolegs)
● hominidTheyareafamilyofprimates.Hominids,includingtheGreatApesand
humans,haveacommonancestorAfricanApes.WhatelsecanIwriteabout?
Hereitisimportanttonotethedistinctionbetweenhominidandhominin.
● Paleolithic:Paleolithic(era)relatestotheprehistoricperiodofhumanhistoryknownas
theoldstoneage,duringwhichpeopleusedstone,bones,andothernaturalproductsto
maketoolsandgainedfoodlargelybyforaging.
● Neolithic:Neolithic(era)relatestotheprehistoricperiodofhumanhistoryknownasthe
Newstoneage,duringwhichpeoplestartedthepracticeofagriculturalandanimal
domestication.
● homoerectus:Homoerectusdirectlytranslatesto“uprighthuman”.Theyareaspecies
thatevolvedinEastAfrica2millionyearsago.Theyhadlargerbrainsthanhomohabilis
andmadetoolsthatwereslightlyspecializedforvarioustasks.
● huntergatherersMostcommonlyreferstothepeopleofthePaleolithicEraandhow
theyreliedongatheredandhuntedmeat.
● homosapienssapiensHomoSapiensSapiensisanotherspeciesinthegenus
Homo.Itmeans"Thinkingthinkinghumans"andtheywerebasicallyaslightly
moreevolvedandmodernextensionofhomosapiens.TheyreplacedHomo
Erectuspopulationsandbecametheancestorsforallmodernhumans.Isthis
missingsomething?linktothediscussionaboutthedifferencetoorbetween
neanderthalsifyoulike(speciesvs.subspecies).

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● NeanderthalsAbranchofhighlydevelopedhomoerectus.Theylivedthroughout
WesternAsiaandEuropebeginning150,000yearsago.Theyhadbigbrainsas
modernhumanandusedtools,bones,andflowerstoburythedeadsuggesting
thattheyunderstooddeath’ssymbolicmeaning.Isthefocusonthisok?Yes,this
looksgreatforsignificance.Iwouldtakeanotherlookattheideathat
neanderthalsareabranchofhomoerectus.lookatthedebatewithhomosapiens.
● Lucy:Ithinklucywasimportantbecausetheyuncoveredalargeportionofherskeleton
andherskeletalremainssupportedthefactthatbipedalismcamebeforetheincreasein
brainsize(oneoftheAustralopithecus)
● artificialselectionApracticeinanimaldomesticationthatencompassedchoosing
specificcharacteristicsofanimalstheylikedandbreedingthoseanimalstogether
tointensifyorcarryonthatfeature.Dogswereoftenthefirsttobedomesticated,
theyusedthisondogstoaidinhunting.Theyalsousedthistomakeanimalswith
moremeatorwoolforharvesting.Thisleadstopastoralism,alifestylebasedon
herdingandraisinglivestock.Isthisokay?verygood,andeasytolinktocourse
themeofprogression.
AncientNearEast:Generally,isEgyptgroupedinwiththeAncientNearEastbecauseI
seeEgyptiantermsunderthissection?(MyunderstandinghasalwaysbeenthatAncient
NearEastisAkkadian,Sumerian,Babylonianetc.butIcouldbewrong)
● t:Iwrotethathegemonymeanscoercionandconsent.Isthattooshort?Doi
misssomething?IknowwhathegemonywaslikeinGreece,butnotinAncient
NearEast?Thinkaboutthepharaohandhisarmy
● Hammurabi:HewastheemperoroftheBabylonians.HeunifiedMesopotamiain
hisreignbyusingmilitaryforce,strategicalliancesandreligiousideas.Heis
knownforthe“Hammurabi’slawcode”.Thelawsthathecameupwithwerereally
strictandveryspecific.
● Akhenaten:Akhenaten was a pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled
for 17 years. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional
Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is
sometimes described as monotheistic.Hisreligiousideasdidnothold,because
afterhediedsodidmostofhisbeliefs.Traditionalpracticesfollowedwiththenew
successor.Hedidsetthetoneformonotheism,however.
● Ma’at:TheEgyptianGoddessofTruthandJustice,Ma’atwasrepresentedasthe
featherthattheheartoftherecentlydeceasedwasweighedagainsttoseeifthe
deceasedcouldenterintotheafterlife,oriftheirheartwouldbedevoured.Thisshows
thecorrelationbetweentheideasofDeath,inthesenseofpotentialafterlife,andGods,
inthesenseoftheirabilitytograntpermissionintotheafterlife.
● Ur:IwrotethatthiswasaSumeriancityinAncientMesopotamiaandaboutthe
famousziggurat.Istheresomethingmoretowrite?Whatwasthesignificanceof
Ur?IfeellikeIammissinginformation.Also,what’sthesignificanceofziggurat?
Thesignificanceisthatithelpedancientmesopotamiansbecomeclosertothe
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