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Midterm

MMW 12 Midterm: Study Guide – Midterm


Department
Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 12
Professor
Alexander B Stewart
Study Guide
Midterm

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MMW 12 Study Guide Midterm
Terms
Plebeians vs. Patricians: plebeians were the lower-class peasants in Roman society.
Patricians were the upper-class nobles who had the power to vote in Roman society.
Conflict arose because of the patricians’ extended power and the plebeians little power
in society, and the plebeians rebelled. The rebellion resulted in the creation of a veto
power for the plebeians in the council. SIGNIFICANT: beginning of the Republic
Rape of the Sabines: Rome was short on women, so they invited the neighboring
people, the Sabines, to a party, and stole their women. SIGNIFICANT: Sabines
eventually became integrated into Roman society
Lucretia: a noblewomen who was raped by a prince. She killed herself, and her husband
and his friend avenged her death by overthrowing the Roman monarchy. SIGNIFICANT:
Established Roman Republic.
Julius Caesar: a Roman general who was limited on his power by the senate. He took
his army, invaded Rome, and made himself dictator for life. Was eventually assassinated
by the senate. SIGNIFICANCE: nephew Augustus rose to power and expanded Rome in
his name. Helped to establish what became the Roman Empire.
Augustus Caesar: Roman emperor; Caesar’s nephew/adopted son; expanded the
Roman Empire to far reaches SIGNIFICANT: created Roman Empire
Pontius Pilate: governor of Roman province of Judea; responsible for the crucifixion of
Jesus SIGNIFICANCE: Christianity
Pliny: letter to Trajan saying Christianity is bad SIGNIFICANCE: Christian persecution
Emperor Trajan: considered one of the greatest Roman emperors; tolerant to Christians
SIGNIFICANT: one of greatest emperors, expanded the empire a lot, religious tolerance
Josephus: Roman historian who wrote about Jesus SIGNIFICANT: confirms Jesus,
Pharisees popular
Seutonius: wrote about the lives of Caesar and Augustus SIGNIFICANT: Historian
Polybius: wrote about the Roman government (Checks and balances, the three
elements) SIGNIFICANT: Roman government today
Bread and Circuses: policy of Caesar; entertain people with gladiator fights and give
them food SIGNIFICANT: made Caesar favorable, allowing him to gain power
Roman Republic: 509-27 BCE SIGNIFICANT: republican government
Pontifex Maximus: title starting with Augustus that the emperor took on; head of the
Roman church SIGNIFICANT: paved way for roman domination of religion
Mystery Cults: religions dependent on initiation, focusing on individual salvation
SIGNIFICANT: Christianity
Pharisees: orthodox jewish priests SIGNIFICANT: criticized a lot in bible
Circumcision: medical procedure; jewish; prevent infections SIGNIFICANT: not upheld in
Christianity
Kosher Food Restrictions: jewish; prevent eating of dirty/hard to cultivate things
SIGNIFICANT: not upheld in Christianity
John the Baptist: Christian saint; baptized jesus SIGNIFICANT: messiah?
Immaculate Conception: being born from God SIGNIFICANT: Christianity
Synoptic Gospels: canonical gospels SIGNIFICANT: Christian texts
Apocryphal Texts: non-canonical gospels SIGNIFICANT: different branches of
Christianity, gnosticism
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Canonical Texts: accepted versions of text SIGNIFICANT: only some were accepted and
seen as the true faith
Q Source: where all of the gospels stemmed from SIGNIFICANT: gives one single
source to validate information
Matthew: prophet; gospel of Matthew; basic narrative written during/after Jewish war;
continued adherence to Jewish law, fulfillment of Torah’s prophecy, Moses/Jesus
parallels, sympathetic to Pilate, hostile to Pharisees SIGNIFICANT: one of synoptic
gospels
Messiah: the savior/leader of the Jewish people SIGNIFICANT: Jesus?
Jesus Movements: pillars of Jerusalem, family of Jesus, congregation of Israel,
Synagogue reform movement SIGNIFICNAT: concentrated in Palestine, different sects
of Christianity
Saul on the Road to Damascus: blinded, gets revelation from Jesus and changes name
to Paul SIGNIFICANT: becomes major player in Christianity and helps to orthodox the
religion
Pauline Christianity: Jesus died for sins; faith over works; Old Testament is allegory;
spiritual descendants of Abraham; don’t have to abide by Old Testament laws; marriage
necessary evil, best to be celibate SIGNIFICANT: orthodox Christianity
Martyrdom: sacrificing self for Christianity SIGNIFICANT: became popular and quick way
to reach heaven
Orante: Roman coin symbol of female praying with raised arms, represented filial piety;
in Christianity comes to represent prayer and piety to god, often representing Noah or
Jonah SIGNIFICANT: became symbol in Christianity; helped to assimilate the religion
into Roman society
Gnosticism: branch of Christianity; apocryphal gospels; demiurge; secret teachings;
church not useful in salvation SIGNIFICANT: persecuted; mystery cults
Mary Magdalene: one of Jesus’s followers SIGNIFICANT: a woman, showed maybe
women had a role in early Christianity; Gospel of Mary
Gospel of Mary: written by Mary Magdalene; dialogue between jesus and followers
SIGNIFICANT: secret teachings of Jesus; Gnosticism
Gospel of Thomas: written by Jesus’s brother; dead sea scrolls; sayings of jesus
SIGNIFICANT: Gnosticism
Virgin Mary: Jesus’s mom SIGNIFICANT: Council of Nicaea
Manichaeism: Christian/gnostic/pagan elements; good vs evil SIGNIFICANCE: blending
of Christianity/Gnosticism/Zoroastrianism
Nestorius/Nestorianism: branch of Christianity; Mary not ‘mother of God’ because Jesus
has separate human and divine natures SIGNIFICANT: banned and exiled; issue again
in Protestant Reformation
Constantine: emperor of Roman empire SIGNIFICANT: Christianity
Eusebius: writes about Constantine SIGNIFICANT: portrays Constantine as noble
Christian ruler
Theodosius: last ruler of united empire; bans paganism for good; destroys early
Christian writings SIGNIFICANCE: makes Christianity more orthodox through
destruction of older, less accepted writings
Diocletian: persecutes Christians as a scapegoat in struggling empire, bans Christianity;
tetrarchy SIGNIFICANT: capable ruler; dives empire, bans Christians
Justinian: Christianity in Roman law; Nicene Christianity only religion; oaths on Bible;
church hierarchy with emperor at head; schools of classical learning closed
SIGNIFICANCE: domination of Christianity in Rome
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