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MMW 12 Study Guide - Final Guide: Crusader States, Investiture Controversy, Heian Period

Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 12
Alexander B Stewart
Study Guide

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MMW 12 Study Guide Final Exam
Muhammad: Prophet of Islam; founded the Muslim religion; mediator for Arab tribes;
SIGNIFICANCE: can be compared to Jesus in Christianity, since both were prophets
whose teachings were made into new religions
Abu Bakr: Muhammad’s successor; first Umayyad caliph; SIGNIFICANCE: succession
Umar: second Umayyad caliph (Abu Bakr’s successor); SIGNIFICANCE: limited status
of women
Hadith: collection of writings about the life of Muhammad compiled from oral stories after
his death, some are deemed more valid than others; SIGNIFICANCE: some Hadith are
attributed to women, many to ‘Aisha, can compare to the Gospel of Mary except these
remained in the Islamic canon
Quraysh: Arab tribe Muhammad came from and had a lot of problems with;
SIGNIFICANCE: became Umayyad caliphs
Ka’aba: sacred shrine in Mecca; part of Hajj; SIGNIFICANCE: used to be a sacred place
for many religions, filled with many different religious artifacts, but eventually these were
removed and it only became sacred to Islam
Quran: sacred text of Islam; revelations from God received by Muhammad;
SIGNIFICANCE: compare to New Testament
People of the Book: Jewish and Christian people in Muslim territories; SIGNIFICANCE:
religious tolerance
Muhammad’s Night Journey: when Muhammad ascended to heaven; SIGNIFICANCE:
compare to Jesus’s resurrection
Ashura: commemorating the death of husayn; SIGNIFICANCE: sunni/shi’a split
Martyrdom: dying for religion; SIGNIFICANCE: appears in many religions, associated
with quick salvation for those who were illiterate
Ulema/Ulama: Islamic legal scholars; SIGNIFICANCE: compare to Confucian scholars
Imam: religious leader for Shi’a Muslims; SIGNIFICANCE: compare to Pope in
Shi’a: branch of Islam; imams; believes that SOMEONE should’ve taken over for
Muhammad; SIGNIFICANCE: fighting later on in history between Sunni and Shi’a
Umayyad Dynasty: line of rulers at the beginning of the Islamic caliphate; traced
ancestry to Muhammad’s uncle; SIGNIFICANCE: spread and laid foundations for future
Islamic empire; copied Persians
Dome of the Rock: religious structure built in Jerusalem, on the sacred spot where
Muhammad ascended to heaven; SIGNIFICANCE: Islamic dominance over Christianity
due to building on the spot where Abraham was going to kill his son; SIGNIFICANT:
shows Muslim dominance over Christianity by building on one of their sacred spots
Al Mansur: first Abbasid caliph; increases Persians in government; SIGNIFICANT:
suppress Shi’a
Abu Muslim al-Khurasani: helps establish Abbasid caliphate; later executed because he
was too powerful; SIGNIFICANT: compare to Lei Bei
Abbasid Dynasty: after Umayyad; more inclusive; more Persian; greek learning; Islamic
law; Baghdad SIGNIFICANT: compare scholarly tradition to dark ages in europe
Palatine Cities: Abbasid administrative centers; Baghdad, Cairo, Samarra;
SIGNIFICANT: compare to big cities like Chang’an
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Qadi: religious judges; SIGNIFICANT: compare to Confucian scholars in differing
House of Wisdom: knowledge; collecting and translating texts from all over the world;
SIGNIFICANT: compare to dark ages in europe
Mihna: attempt by al ma’mun to institute mu’tazili ideology as orthodox; SIGNIFICANCE:
orthodoxy in religion
Mu’tazili: logical sect of Islam; everything is created, even the quran, so if it’s not logical,
throw it out; SIGNIFICANCE: greek philosophy entering Islamic world
Sufism: mystical branch of Islam; rejects worldly experiences; many brotherhoods
SIGNIFICANT: compare to mystical christianity
Dhikr: sufism; sacred chant; SIGNIFICANT: compare to mantras
Occultation: hiding of the twelfth imam; SIGNIFICANT: compare to christianity
Da’wa: evangelism and community; converting people to islam; SIGNIFICANCE:
compare to Christianity
Mahdi: ‘rightfully guided one’; twelfth imam that will come back; SIGNIFICANCE:
compare to second coming
Islmaili: living active imam, da’wa; SIGNIFICANCE: compare to twelver shi’a
Zaydidi: need direct descent of ali for political and religious authority; SIGNIFICANCE:
conflict over leadership in islam
Ansar: those in medina who housed emigrants while they built homes; SIGNIFICANCE:
compare to christianity
Shura/Consultation: way of choosing successor by consulting elders; SIGNIFICANCE:
compare to Christianity chosen by emperor/heredity
Caliph: ruler in caliphates; religious and secular ruler; SIGNIFICANT: compare to Roman
Emperors, where they were head of both the church and state
Five Pillars of Islam: hajj, fasting, praying 5x per day, giving 1/40 of salary, no pork;
required of all Muslims; SIGNIFICANT: compare to 10 Commandments
Sunna: another word for hadith; SIGNIFICANT: compare to gnostic gospels; women
Conquest of Mecca: fight to overtake and convert Quraysh Mecca, succeeded;
SIGNIFICANCE: Mecca holy Islamic city now
Constitution of Medina: charter for the city outlining rules for life; SIGNIFICANCE: First
written constitution, religious tolerance, compare to Edict of Milan
Dhimmis: non-Muslims; SIGNIFICANCE: religious tolerance; compare with the way that
non-Christians were treated in Christian society
Rashidun: first caliphs; SIGNIFICANCE: set groundwork for later caliphates
Jizya: tax on non-Muslims in Islamic empires; SIGNIFICANCE: religious tolerance,
compare to Christian empires were non-Christians were persecuted against
Amsar: garrison towns where caliphate’s troops would stay after conquering a territory;
SIGNIFICANT: xenophobia
Battle of the Camel: battle over ali’s succession; SIGNIFICANCE: sunni/shi’a split
Mu’awiya: opposed ali taking the throne and helped launch the battle of the camel,
eventually taking the throne himself; SIGNIFICANCE: sunni/shi’a split
Ali: Muhammad’s son-in-law; Muhammad said to follow him after his death;
SIGNIFICANCE: Sunni/Shi’a split
Husayn: Ali’s son; killed; SIGNIFICANCE: shi’a; martyrdom
Uthman: Umayyad caliph; gave more rights to woman than umar; standard quran
SIGNIFICANT: standardization of religion
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