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Study Guide

MMW 12- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 75 pages long!)


Department
Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 12
Professor
Edmond Chang
Study Guide
Final

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UCSD
MMW 12
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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ROME Lecture 1
Legendary Origins
Legendarily founded after Aeneas, son of Venus fled the Trojan War
His descendant abandoned his twins, Romulus and Remus, who were raised by a
she-wolf
Romans glorify the marshal character of the roman state, raised by wolves
They grew up to depose their evil uncle, put their father on the throne, and found
a new city
They disagreed on which hill to found the city on, and Romulus kills Remus in
the fight
Romulus founds the city of Rome
Male refugees flocked to early Rome, but there was a shortage of women, so…
They invite neighboring Sabines to a festival and steal their daughters
When the Sabines invade Rome three years later, the women intervene and stop
the fighting
The two peoples form a united kingdom, beginning a history of violence and
assimilation
Ongoing cycle of violence, intimidation and eventually cooperation
Romulus made himself king, and established a council of 100 elders (senate), this
expands to include 100 Sabines and 100 Romans
He dies mysteriously; legendarily ascending to heaven or maybe murdered by the
senate b/c he was an ass
His successor, Numa, a Sabine, is elected by an assembly of the population in
which each clan gets one vote. He is remembered as founder of Roman religion.
Eventually, a line of Etruscans, a people who dominated north Italy, seized the
throne
Rape of Lucretia
The son of the king raped a noblewoman
Lucretia tells her father and husband what happened and commits suicide
Lucretia’s husband and his friend, Brutus (nephew of the king), launch a
rebellion, expel the king, and are elected the first consuls, executives of
the new government
Divided between 2 people with 1year term
Beginning of Roman Republic
From Kingdom to Republic
While Brutus is consul, his sons conspire to bring the king back, and he has them
put to death
Putting duty to state over family is seen as a heroic act
Brutus is killed as royalists lead rebellions to try to re-establish the monarchy, and
divine intervention is credited with saving the republic
Roman Republic- Checks and Balances
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Executive power is divided between two consuls, serving for one year, with no
religious power
Patricians (landed gentry) hold political office and vote in the assembly, so
plebeians (lower class) threaten to secede
Often decisions were already made before plebeians have the opportunity
to vote
Office of people’s tribune is established with veto power, at first two, but
eventually ten
dictator - was elected to hold absolute power for a six month term when Rome
faced a crisis
Ideal: Man plowing his field, goes and leads army, defends rome, then
goes back to plowing his field
Roman citizenship granted only to those born to two Roman parents
Roman Expansion
Conquers Italian peninsula, then comes into conflict with Carthage (present-day
Libya) over Sicily
In defeating Carthage in the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), Rome gains control of
the western Mediterranean, becomes a naval power, and continues expansion
Empire enriches patricians who build large estates and put small farmers out of
business.
Labor also unneeded because lots of slaves acquired through war
Generals employ plebeians and build more popular loyalty than aristocratic
officials
Julius Caesar
Curried favor with the plebeians by sponsoring gladiatorial contests and
advocating populist policies (bread and circuses) giving cash and gladiator
spectacles
Avoided civil wars between other generals by conducting campaigns abroad
Elected as consul, he conquered Gaul and gained even more popularity, so much
that the senate revoked his military governorship
Caesar returned to Rome with his army, seized power, and was named dictator for
life
Was never supposed to return because it would start a civil war
He redistributed public property to the poor, employed plebians in massive
building projects, extended citizenship, and angered senators who killed him.
Stabbed by every member of the senate on the Senate floor so they all
literally had blood on their hands.
Augustus
JC’s nephew and adopted son is victorious in the civil wars after his death
The senate names him Augustus and makes him tribune for life, allowing him to
establish an imperial government while maintaining republican structure
Centralizes control of the military pays the soldiers himself so doesn’t
need senate involvement
He calls himself both “first citizen” and pontifex maximus “high priest”
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