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MMW 12 Midterm: MMW 12 - Midterm Study Guide

Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 12
Janet Smarr
Study Guide

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Lecture #1 - Rome: How it became a Republic → Empire
1. 3 Phases of Roman History
a. Kings
i. End of Kings: rape of Lucretia, Brutus
b. Republic
i. Expansion of territory, wars, with Carthage
ii. Civil War
iii. There were 2 consuls and they all have to agree with each other in order
to pass policies
iv. Rome also expanded throughout Italy. They also formed alliance with
other territories
v. Punic Wars (Rome vs. Carthage)
c. Emperors
i. Spread over to Mediterranean and Middle East
2. Government of Roman Republic
a. 2 Consuls
b. Senate
c. Assembly
3. Foundation of Rome
a. Hilltops villages → Easier to defend community if built on hills
b. Romulus and Rome → founders
c. Romulus kills Remus
d. Established Senate
e. Expanded to other territories by abducting and marrying their women
4. Etruscans
a. Developed in north-central Italy
b. Originated: Turkey or Southeast Asia
c. Adopted Greek alphabets to create their own language
d. Writing disappeared when Rome conquered them
e. Cities resembled Greek
f. Traded iron w/Greek neighbors and Mediterranean for luxury goods
g. Cities organized in leagues
h. Encountered collection of villages (Rome)
i. Etruscans impact on Rome
i. Real city with urban structures.
ii. Rome adopted Etruscans ABC’s
iii. Toga - white woolen robe
iv. Gladiatorial combat honoring the dead
v. Architectures
5. Etruscans Kings
a. Last 3 kings = Etruscans
b. King Tarquin raped Lucretia → expulsion of Etruscan Kings = end of
monarchical period

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6. Rape of Lucretia
a. Lucretia = righteous Rome wife
b. King Tarquin raped Lucretia
c. She wanted her husband and father to seek for revenge
d. Commits suicide
e. Husband and father seek revenge by throwing the Etruscan Kings out
i. Brutus, husband friend kills the King
7. Senate
a. Assembly of aristocrats
b. Council of Advisers - “council of old men” (Romulus), but may have originated
during monarchical period
i. Aristocrats rebelled against Kings → created Senate
c. Advised consuls and other officials military and political matters
d. Handled finances for gov’t
e. Handle relations between Rome and other powers
8. Consuls
a. Executive power
b. TWO were elected for one year terms only
c. For Patricians men only
d. commanded army in battle
e. administered state business
f. Supervised financial affairs
9. Praetors
a. Took over when Consuls were away from Rome
b. Interpret laws
c. Command armies
d. Administer justice
10. Celts or Gauls
a. Invaded the Italian peninsula
b. Swept aside a Roman army
c. Sacked the city of Rome
d. Will leave Rome alone if they give them gold
11. Conquest of Italy
a. Rebuilt city after invasion of Celts
b. Allied with Latium and Latin allies
c. Conquered Etruria
d. Spread religious traditions
e. Built roads → facilitated in trade, communication, and armies
f. Politics - shared full Roman citizenship with many allies
12. Plebeians vs. Patricians
a. Early Republic:
i. Patricians: hereditary aristocracy - hold political power, more privileged
1. Legal status: determined by birth as members of certain families

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2. Dominated fairs of state
3. Provided military leadership
4. Monopolized knowledge of law and legal procedure
ii. Plebeians: Common people who were free citizens
1. Voice in politics
2. Few of patricians’ political and social advantages
3. Most were poor artisan, small farmers, and landless urban
4. Merchants rivaled with Patricians
b. Conflicts with each other:
i. Inequality - Struggle of the Orders
1. Plebeians refused to serve in the Rome army and created a strike
→ Patricians allowed them to elect their own officials
i. Patricians are the only one who knows the law →
used it for own benefit
ii. Plebeians wanted the laws to be published and
iii. Patricians: published Laws of 12 Tables + allowed
1. 12 bronze plaques
2. Legal issues - property, ownership,
guardianship, inheritance, and punishments
for various crimes
iv. Can now marry each other
13. Licinian - Sextian laws
a. Allowed wealthy Plebeians access to office → even holding one of the two
consulships → sit in Senate
14. Polybius
a. Greek politician and historian
15. Ius Gentium
a. Because Rome had more contact with foreigners, praetors created this.
b. Law of peoples → International laws
i. All sides were to be treated the same regardless of nationality
16. Natural laws
a. Ius naturale
b. Govern human behavior that come from applying reasons instead of customs or
17. Jurisprudence
a. Rational arguable system of law → not just a set of local customs
18. Cicero
a. A system of law based on principles → can be extended to all kinds of people
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